The Role of Civil Society in Democratic Consolidation in Pakistan and Turkey
Keywords:Civil Society, CSOs, Human Rights, NGOs, Democracy, Pakistan, Turkey
In the modern era, the role of civil society cannot be ignored in the development of a country. In the democratic arena, it compels the undemocratic elements to follow democratic norms in a given society and keeps a vigilant watch on the activities of the government. This article, apart from the conceptual clarification of civil society and democracy, throws light on how civil society played its role in the promotion of democratisation in Pakistan and Turkey. In Pakistan, civil society is considered as an umbrella phrase for a range of non-state and non-market citizen organisations and initiatives, network, and unions operating in an expansive gamut. The civil society in Pakistan has been flawed by the structural dynamics of state consolidation from the beginning. In current years, nevertheless, civil society organisations have proven to be stronger and dedicated but is still at a developing stage. Looking at the Turkish politics after the World War II, it has been under the influence of rapid democratisation as well as social mobilisation. It also precipitated the delivery of services to the neglected periphery of society.
Anheier, H. (2004). The third sector: Comparative study of non profit organizations. New York: Walter de Gryler Publications.
Aras, K. (2000). The crisis of civil society in Turkey. Journal of Economic and Social Research, 2(2), 39-58. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/messages/downloadsexceeded.html
Beetham, D. (1992). Liberal democracy and the limits of democratisation. Political Studies, 40(1), 40-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1992.tb01811.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1992.tb01811.x
Doyle, J. L. (2016, March 24). The societal roles of CSO: Evidence from Turkey. Web publication/site, Retrieved from, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/societal-roles-csos-evidence-turkey
Eberley, D. (2000). The essential civil society reader. New York: The Classic Essays.
Eligur, B. (2014). The mobilization of political Islam in Turkey. Camridge University Press.
Ganesan, N. & Durkop, C. (2015). Civil society and democracy in South East Asia and Turkey. Konrad-Adeneur Stiftung: Ankara.
Kadioglu, A. (2005, January). Civil society, Islam and democracy in Turkey: A study of three Islamic non governmental organizations. The Muslim World, 95(1), 23-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2005.00077.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2005.00077.x
Kuzmanovic, D. (2012). Refraction in civil society. In, Refractions of civil society in Turkey (pp. 177-183). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137027924_6
Mardin, S. (2006). Center-pherephry as a concept for the study of social transformation: Religion, society and modernity in Turkey. New York: Syracuse University Press.
Mirahmadi, H., Ziad, W., Farooq, M., & Lamb, R. D. (2015). Empowering Pakistan' civil society to counter global violent extremism. Eashington: Center for Middle Easst Policy at Brookings.
Nochmani, A. (2007). The importance of being European: Turkey, the EU and Middle East. University of Hebrew Press.
Rizvi, H. A. (2007). Democracy in Pakistan: Assesment. Project on State of Democracy in South Asia as part of the qualitative Assessment of Democracy Lokniti (Program of Comparative Democracy). New Delhi: Centre for the Study of Developing Societies.
Sattar, N. (2011). Has civil society failed in Pakistan? Islamabad: Social Policy Development Centre.
Seckinelgin, H. (2002). Civil society as a metaphor for Western Liberalism. Global Society, 16(4), 357-376. https://doi.org/10.1080/0953732022000016090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0953732022000016090
Shafqat, S. (1998). Democracy in Pakistan: Value change and challenges of institutional building. The Pakistan Development Review, 37(4), 281-283. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41261058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.30541/v37i4IIpp.281-298
Shah, A. (2014). The Army and democracy: Military politics in Pakistan. London: Harvard University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674419766
Sheikh, R. (2009). A state of transition: Authoritarianism and democratization in Pakistan. Asia Journal of Global Studies, 3(1), 4-21. https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=GGrJieI2qV0C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Sievers, B. (2010). Civil society, philanthropy and the fate of the commons. Lebanon: Tuft University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1xx9h9x
Stepan, K. (2012). Democracy, Islam and secularism in Turkey. Columbia University Press.
Sultanat, A. (2003). Does civil society matter? Governance in contemporary India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Taj, A., Nouman, M., & Gul, S. (2014). Impact of authoritarianism on democracy and local governance in Pakistan: Historical Perspectives. South Asian Studies, 29(2), 463-481. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/8_Dr._Aamer_v29_no2_2014.pdf
Peterson, T. J., & Til, J. V. (2004). Defining characteristics of civil society. The International Journal of Not-for-Profit-Law, 6(2). Retrieved from, https://www.icnl.org/resources/research/ijnl/defining-characteristics-of-civil-society
Tocco, L. (2014). Civil society in Turkey: A reading of Gazetesi through Gramiscian lens. Springer Fachmedian Wiesbaden. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-04916-4_6
Tol. (2016). Turkey’s political trends in 2016. Committee on Foreign Affairs; House of Commons. Retrieved from, https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-114hhrg98485/html/CHRG-114hhrg98485.htm
White, J. (2002). Islamist mobilization in Turkey: A study in vernacular politics. University of Washington Press.
Zahid, M. (2011). Dictatorship in Pakistan: A study of Zia era (19977-88). Pakistan Tournal of History and Culture, 32(1), 1-27. http://www.nihcr.edu.pk/latest_english_journal/1.pdf
Zunes, S. (2009). Pakistan's movement for restoration of democracy (1981-84). International Center on Non-Violent Conflict. Retrieved from, https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/pakistans-movement-restoration-democracy-1981-1984/
Zweerde, S. (2004). Civil society, religion and the Nation. Modernization in intercultural context: Russia, Japan and Turkey. New York: Brill.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Samina Batool, Amna Mahmood, Amin Ullah
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Licensing & Copyright Policies
Articles in LASSIJ-IDEA are Open Access contents published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) http://
The copyright policy of LASSIJ-IDEA is based on a non-exclusive publishing agreement, according to which the journal retains the right of first publication, but the author(s) are free to subsequently publish their work. The copyright of all work rests with the author(s).
The users may use, reproduce, disseminate or display the article(s) provided that the author(s) are attributed as the original creators and that the reuse is restricted to non-commercial purposes, i.e., research or other educational use. Authors are encouraged to familiarise themselves with the various creative commons licenses.