Perspectives on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Women in Azad Jammu and Kashmir: A Legal Analysis


  • Sardar M. A. W. K. Arif Department of Law, University of Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan | RIJKS, Universiteit Groningen, Netherlands.
  • Tayyaba Bashir Deparmtent of English, University of Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.
  • Khushboo Fatima Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.



Women’s ESC rights, Women in AJK, Human Rights Issues, Women’s Rights, Economic Rights, Social Rights, Cultural Rights, Discrimination


This article focuses on women’s economic, social and cultural (ESC) rights in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). The Key human right issues concerning three ESC rights, namely education, employment and health, are targeted and discussed here. The article argues that towards fulfilment of its state-like national and international human rights obligations, AJK may progressively realize for its women population, its ESC rights through legal and policy measures. At the outset, the article discusses key human rights of women in the AJK, reflecting on both law and policy issues. While discussing the three rights mentioned above, the main focus remains on equality and non-discrimination. An analytical method is adopted to analyse relevant laws and policies. The article will, however, note deficiencies, if any, in the relevant laws and policies pertaining to the three targeted rights.


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How to Cite

Arif, S. M. A. W. K., Bashir, T., & Fatima, K. (2020). Perspectives on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Women in Azad Jammu and Kashmir: A Legal Analysis. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 3(2), 65–73.