Arab Spring Failure: A Case Study of Egypt and Syria


  • Raid Khan Department of Politics and International Studies, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom | Department of International Relations, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Amna Mahmood Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Asif Salim Department of Political Science, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan.



Arab Spring, Revolution, Middle East, Civil War, Uprising, Regime Transition


The Arab Spring was assumed to reform the prevailing regime pattern and to bring socio-economic reforms. However, it failed to get its intended outcomes at large. The objectives of the revolution that are to bring a positive transformation in the social, economic, and political domains were not attained effectively and was considered a failed revolution in the case of Egypt and Syria. The present paper focuses on exploring the reasons and factors behind its failure in the particular context of Egypt and Syria. Although Egypt observed regime transition from dictatorship to democracy, yet within one and a half year, a military coup overthrew the democratically elected government of Mohammad Morsi, and the military regime was reinstalled. In the case of Syria, since 2011, a civil war is going on where Bashar-ul-Asad still holds dictatorial powers. The study reveals that the lack of stable political institutions, weak democratic norms, and the absence of a vibrant civil society paved the way for state authorities to rule out the attempts of protestors. Excluding a few of the countries, the rest of the Middle Eastern countries are still ruled by the powerful elites. The successes of the Arab Spring are still to be awaited.


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How to Cite

Khan, R., Mahmood, A., & Salim, A. (2020). Arab Spring Failure: A Case Study of Egypt and Syria. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 4(1), 44–53.

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