A qualitative study of factors influencing service-learning implementation in vocational education field of Pakistan: Teachers’ perspectives


  • Iqbal Ahmed Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4202-6714
  • Muhammad Saeed Department of Global & Social Studies, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8439-3830
  • Zahid Ullah Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.




service-learning, implementation, influencing factors, vocational educaiton, Pakistan, elementary education, civic service, pedagogy, outcomes, teachers’ experiences, education in Pakistan, teachers' perspective


Service-learning is an emerging pedagogical method generating effective outcomes. However, its long-term outcomes are contingent on plausible planning, realistic target designing, and pragmatic execution and implementation. This study, drawing on elementary school teachers’ views from the Punjab regions of Pakistan, attempts to explore the factors influencing service-learning implementation in the vocational field. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from 30 teachers from different regions of the Punjab province who had participated in service-learning projects. Study samples were selected through the purposive sampling technique. Thematic analysis technique was used for data analysis. The analysis process included data coding, categorizing, and clustering the categories into themes. The findings showed that planning, training and orientation, student placement, duration, collaboration, and reflection were major influencing factors of service-learning implementation in vocational education in Pakistan.


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How to Cite

Ahmed, I., Saeed, M., & Ullah, Z. (2021). A qualitative study of factors influencing service-learning implementation in vocational education field of Pakistan: Teachers’ perspectives. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 55–74. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/5.1.5