A qualitative study of factors influencing service-learning implementation in vocational education field of Pakistan: Teachers’ perspectives
Keywords:service-learning, implementation, influencing factors, vocational educaiton, Pakistan, elementary education, civic service, pedagogy, outcomes, teachers’ experiences, education in Pakistan, teachers' perspective
Service-learning is an emerging pedagogical method generating effective outcomes. However, its long-term outcomes are contingent on plausible planning, realistic target designing, and pragmatic execution and implementation. This study, drawing on elementary school teachers’ views from the Punjab regions of Pakistan, attempts to explore the factors influencing service-learning implementation in the vocational field. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from 30 teachers from different regions of the Punjab province who had participated in service-learning projects. Study samples were selected through the purposive sampling technique. Thematic analysis technique was used for data analysis. The analysis process included data coding, categorizing, and clustering the categories into themes. The findings showed that planning, training and orientation, student placement, duration, collaboration, and reflection were major influencing factors of service-learning implementation in vocational education in Pakistan.
Akhtar, A., Topping, K., Tariq, R. H., & Wakefield, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK prospective teachers. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 5(2), 243-265. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/188028
Anderson, J. B. (2000). Learning in deed: Service-learning and preservice teacher education. Service Learning, General, 16(1), 1-17. https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/slceslgen/16
Berman, S. (2006). Service-learning: A guide to planning, implementing, and assessing student projects. Thousand Oaks.
Blakey, J. M., Theriot, S., Cazzell, M., and Sattler, M. (2015). Is service-learning worth it?: A mixed-methods study of faculty’s service-learning experiences. The International Journal of Research on Service-Learning and Community Engagement, 3(1), 1-19. https://core.ac.uk/reader/236087450
Bringle, R. G., and Hatcher, J. A. (1995). A service-learning curriculum for faculty. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2(1), 112-122. https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/handle/1805/4591
Bringle, R. G., and Hatcher, J. A. (1996). Implementing service learning in higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 67(2), 221-239. https://doi.org/10.2307/2943981
Bringle, R. G., and Hatcher, J. A. (2002). Campus-community partnerships: The terms of engagement. Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 503-516. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00273
Bringle, R. G., & Steinberg, K. (2010). Educating for informed community involvement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 46(3), 428-441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9340-y
Bringle, R. G., Hatcher, J. A., and Jones, S. G. (2012). International service-learning: Conceptual frameworks and research. Stylus Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541344614549600
Brownell, J. E., and Swaner, L. E. (2010). Five high-impact practices: Research on learning outcomes, completion, and quality: Association of American Colleges and Universities. https://doi.org/10.1111/teth.12035
Butin, D. W. (2006). The Limits of Service-Learning in Higher Education. The Review of Higher Education, 29(4), 473-498. https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2006.0025
Butin, D. W. (2010). Service-learning in theory and practice: The future of community engagement in higher education. Palgrave Macmillan.
Creswell, J. W., and Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage.
Deeley, S. J. (2010). Service-learning: Thinking outside the box. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11(1), 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787409355870
Denby, R. A. (2008). The impact of service-learning on students' sense of civic responsibility. Masters in Education, Faculty of Education, The University of Western Ontario, London. http://docplayer.net/5180079-The-impact-of-service-learning-on-students-sense-of-civic-responsibility-thesis-format-monograph-by-rebecca-a-denby-faculty-of-education.html
Falk, A. (2012). Enhancing the team experience in service-learning courses. Journal for Civic Commitment, 18(1), 1-16. https://scholarworks.merrimack.edu/soe_facpub/1
Furco, A., and Billig, S. (2002). Service-learning: The essence of the pedagogy. Information Age.
Galvan, C., Meaney, K., & Gray, V. (2018). Examining the reciprocal nature of service-learning for underserved students and preservice teachers. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37(4), 363-372. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2018-0051
Gershenson-Gates, R. (2012). The impact of service-learning on college students' civic development and sense of self-efficacy. College of Science and Health, Theses and Dissertations. DePaul University. https://via.library.depaul.edu/csh_etd/3
Hall, E., Chai, W., and Albrecht, J. A. (2016). A qualitative phenomenological exploration of teachers’ experience with nutrition education. American Journal of Health Education, 47 (3), 136-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2016.1157532
Hatcher, J. A., and Bringle, R. G. (1997). Reflection: Bridging the gap between service and learning. College Teaching, 45(4), 153-158. doi.org/10.1080/87567559709596221
Hatcher, J. A., Bringle, R. G., and Muthiah, R. (2004). Designing effective reflection: what matters to service-learning? Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 11(1), 38-46. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.3239521.0011.104
Halberstadt, J., Schank, C., Euler, M., & Harms, R. (2019). Learning sustainability entrepreneurship by doing: providing a lecturer-oriented service-learning framework. Sustainability, 11(5), 1217 (1-22). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051217
Howard, J. (2003). Service-learning research: Foundational issues. In: S.H. Billing, S. H and A. S. Waterman (eds) Studying Service-Learning: Innovations in Education Research Methodology, (pp. 1-12). Routledge.
Horning, M. L., Ostrow, L., Beierwaltes, P., Beaudette, J., Schmitz, K., and Fulkerson, J. A. (2020). Service-learning within community-engaged research: Facilitating nursing student learning outcomes. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(6), 510-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2020.04.005
Huda, M., Jasmi, K. A., Alas, Y., Qodriah, S. L., Dacholfany, M. I., & Jamsari, E. A. (2018). Empowering civic responsibility: Insights from service learning. In: S. L. Burton (Eds) Engaged Scholarship and Civic Responsibility in Higher Education (pp. 144-165). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-3649-9.ch007
Jacoby, B. (1996). Service-Learning in Today’s Higher Education. In: B. Jacoby, & Associates (Eds.), Service-learning in higher education: Concepts and practices (pp. 3-25). Jossey-Bass.
Jacoby, B. (2014). Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers, and lessons learned. John Wiley & Sons.
Jeandron, C., and Robinson, G. (2010). Creating a climate for service learning success. American Association of Community Colleges. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513943.pdf
Jerome, L. (2012). Service learning and active citizenship education in England. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1746197911432594
Johnson, M., Goldberg, C., Willies-Jacobo, L., Wan, L., Guluma, K., & Smith, S. (2019). Implementation and outcomes of a community assessment service-learning activity within academic learning communities. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 6, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120519864403
King, J. T. (2004). Service-learning as a site for critical pedagogy: A case of collaboration, caring, and defamiliarization across borders. Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (3), 121-137. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F105382590402600304
Lambright, K. (2008). Lessons outside of the classroom: Examining the effectiveness of service learning projects at achieving learning objectives. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(2), 205-217. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2008.12001520
Lambright, K. T., and Lu, Y. (2009). What Impacts the learning in service-learning? An examination of project structure and student characteristics. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 15(4), 425-444. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2009.12001570
Lee, S. J., Wilder, C., & Yu, C. (2018). Exploring students’ perceptions of service-learning experiences in an undergraduate web design course. Teaching in Higher Education, 23(2), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2017.1379486
Lieberman, D. (2014). The ABCDs of service-learning: Who is serving whom? Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 18(4), 7-16. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/1155/1154
Lincoln, Y. S., and Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry (Vol. 75). Sage.
Michael, R. D., Webster, C. A., Egan, C. A., Stewart, G., Nilges, L., Brian, A., ... & Vazou, S. (2018). Viability of university service learning to support movement integration in elementary classrooms: Perspectives of teachers, university students, and course instructors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 72(1), 122-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.03.003
Moustakas, C. E. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Sage.
O'Grady, C. R. (2014). Integrating service learning and multicultural education in colleges and universities. Routledge.
Phillips, D. C., & Burbules, N. C. (2000). Philosophy, theory, and educational research: Post-positivism and educational research. Rowman & Littlefield.
Phillips, J. M. (2011). Integrating service-learning into the classroom: Examining the extent to which students achieve course objectives and a sense of civic responsibility by engaging in service learning (Order No. 3472928). ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (894264125). https://search.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/integrating-service-learning-into-classroom/docview/894264125/se-2?accountid=27795
Playford, D., Bailey, S., Fisher, C., Stasinska, A., Marshall, L., Gawlinski, M., & Young, S. (2019). Twelve tips for implementing effective service learning. Medical Teacher, 41(1), 24-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2017.1401217
Robinson, G. and Gottlieb, K. (2002). Civic responsibility and service-learning: The need for curricular integration. https://www.mesacc.edu/community-civic-engagement/journals/civic-responsibility-and-service-learning-need-curricular.
Rue, P. (1996). Administering successful service-learning programs. In: B. Jacoby (Ed.), Service learning in higher education (pp. 246-275). Jossey-Bass.
Salam, M., Iskandar, D. N. A., Ibrahim, D. H. A., & Farooq, M. S. (2019). Service-learning in higher education: A systematic literature review. Asia Pacific Education Review, 20(4), 573-593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-019-09580-6
Sangpikul, A. (2017). Implementing academic service learning and the PDCA cycle in a marketing course: Contributions to three beneficiaries. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 21(1), 83-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.08.007
Schamber, J. F., and Mahoney, S. L. (2008). The development of political awareness and social justice citizenship through community-based learning in a first-year general education seminar. The Journal of General Education, 57(2), 75-99. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27798097?seq=1
Trigos-Carrillo, L., Fonseca, L., & Reinoso, N. (2020). Social impact of a transformative service-learning experience in a post-conflict setting. Frontiers in Psychology, 11 (47), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00047
Uzair-ul-Hassan, M., & Noreen, Z. (2013). Educational mismatch between graduates possessed skills and market demands in Pakistan. International Education Studies, 6(11), 122-129. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n11p122
Wade, R. (2008). Service-learning. In: L. S. Levstik & C. A. Tyson (Eds), Handbook of research in social studies education, (pp. 109-123). Routledge.
Weiler, L., Haddock, S., Zimmerman, T. S., Krafchick, J., Henry, K., and Rudisill, S. (2013). Benefits derived by college students from mentoring at?risk youth in a service?learning course. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(3-4), 236-248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-013-9589-z
Zhang, G., Zeller, N., Griffith, R., Metcalf, D., Williams, J., Shea, C., and Misulis, K. (2011). Using the context, input, process, and product evaluation model (CIPP) as a comprehensive framework to guide the planning, implementation, and assessment of service-learning programs. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 15(4), 57-84. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/901
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Saeed, Zahid Ullah
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Articles in LASSIJ are Open Access contents published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0) International License http://