Geospatial analysis of flood causes and extent of flood damages in Swat Valley, North Pakistan




Swat Valley, Flood, Remote sensing, GIS technology, Landsat satellite, Geospatial analysis, Climate change, Deforestation, Environmental problems, Catastrophes


Floods are the most dangerous and recurring natural hazard that can destroy people’s property, lives, and livelihoods, and they occur because of extreme weather events, population expansion, and the lack of effective preparedness measures. The key reasons included unplanned built-up regions, town expansion on the mountain slopes, lack of awareness, and poverty. Floods are considered one of Pakistan's most devastating and recurring natural catastrophes. Similarly, district Swat is a highly prone area to flooding and has been severely impacted by recent floods in 2010, 2016, and 2020.  Primary data were acquired through field surveys and direct observation. For micro-level analysis, four villages were selected randomly, i.e. Ningulai, Amamdherai, Shagai, and Paklai. The analysis revealed that floods mainly occurred in summer in July and August in upper Swat, while riverine floods were experienced in lower Swat.  The resultant analysis shows that 95 people died in July 2010, 19 in 2016, and 13 in floods in 2020. The comparison of pre-and-post-flood satellite images reveals that significant changes happened in the post-flood scenario, most notably in the water class, and it was found that the area under water bodies has increased in the post-flood situation.


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How to Cite

Manglore, U., Rahman, A. U., Marwat, F., Naz, T., Dilbar, S., & Khan, F. (2024). Geospatial analysis of flood causes and extent of flood damages in Swat Valley, North Pakistan . Natural and Applied Sciences International Journal (NASIJ), 5(1), 130–153.



Research Articles