Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of Hepatitis B and C viruses in patients from Bahawalpur, Pakistan


  • Allah Ditta Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Khawar Ali Shahzad Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan | Department of ORL-HNS, Shanghai Fourth People’s Hospital and School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
  • Aqsa Shaheen Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.



HBV, HCV, ELISA, Virus, Hepatitis virus, Isolation, Identification, Smoking, Hygienic conditions, Disease prevalence, Epidemiological dynamics, Liver disease


HBV and HCV are globally linked to chronic liver diseases and spread mainly through parenteral, vertical, and sexual routes. The epidemiologies of HBV and HCV infections in Bahawalpur, Pakistan was poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological dynamics and risk factors in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A total of 263 samples were detected with HCV and HBV among various age groups between 21-80 years via molecular techniques (ELISA and PCR). Results for disease prevalence showed a higher rate for HCV as compared to HBV. Further, the gender-wise prevalence of HBV and HCV was also assessed. PCR revealed 50.1% prevalence rate in the male population as compared to 46% in females whereas, ELISA measured 34.5% and 17.4%. Moreover, results also confirmed the higher infection rate of Hepatitis in males with moderate age as compared to young and older age. This study concluded a higher prevalence rate of hepatitis C in the population of Bahawalpur, having moderate age and causing a huge loss of economy to the community as well as Pakistan. Our findings improve understanding of HBV and HCV infection prevalence in Bahawalpur City, aiding government efforts to minimize associated losses.


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How to Cite

Ditta, A., Shahzad, K. A., & Shaheen, A. (2024). Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of Hepatitis B and C viruses in patients from Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Natural and Applied Sciences International Journal (NASIJ), 5(1), 14–27.

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