The implications of the state’s response to the violent ethnic conflicts in Balochistan


  • Muhammad Ejaz Department of Pakistan Studies, Faculty of Arts & Humanities, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan | Department of Higher Education, Archives, and Libraries, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Kalim Ullah Department of Higher Education, Archives, and Libraries, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Amir Shabbir Department of Higher Education, Archives, and Libraries, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Waleed Ahmed Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies; University of Gottingen, Germany.



identity, ethnicity, dynamics of conflict, violent conflicts, state aggression, conflict transformation, reconciliation, religious extremism, strategic compulsions


The ethnic conflicts have severely challenged Pakistan's integrity and national security. Ethnic nationalists are entangled with the state over identity issues and their demand for a due share in power and resources. The study aims to explore the nature of the state response to these conflicts and to measure the effects of the state responses on the conflict's dynamics and social environment of Balochistan. The research questions are how the state responded to ethnic conflicts, and what are the implications of the responses on the dynamics of ethnic conflicts? The research is qualitative, descriptive, and interpretive approaches have been used to address the research questions. The material is collected from primary and secondary sources, such as government records, newspapers, books, periodicals, research papers, and websites. The study is significant because it has debated a less debated burning issue of Baloch. The research findings show that Pakistan responded with compromise and dominance, but dominance was always the paramount option. However, dominance has not been a better framework because it has further complicated the conflicts. It is recommended that reconciliation and compromise are better response options because they can positively defuse conflicts and adjust ethnic identities.


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How to Cite

Ejaz, M., Ullah, K., Shabbir, A., & Ahmed, W. (2023). The implications of the state’s response to the violent ethnic conflicts in Balochistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 7(1), 155–171.