Constitution of Afghanistan: An Analysis of Educational and Linguistic Provisions


  • Asghar Khan Department of Regional Studies, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Ayaz Ahmad Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
  • Asma Gul Department of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.



Afghanistan, Afghan Constitution, Education, Language Rights, Ethnic Conflicts, Linguistic Polarisation, Ethnic Polarisation


The paper analyses the Constitution of 2004 of Afghanistan in the context of Education and Linguistics. It aims to determine the extent of concentration and focus given to the educational and linguistics promotion in the new constitution. The paper also attempts to unearth the features of the language landscape of Afghanistan. It investigates why language and education have become an existential problem in Afghanistan. It also explores how the new constitution ensures the provision of education and language. The article has reviewed the secondary data, mostly the analytical review of the current constitution of Afghanistan in the light of the comparative study of the other related documents and old constitutions. The new constitution provides sufficient evidence of the attention given to education and linguistics promotion. Comparative analyses of the articles of the Constitution of Afghanistan 2004, with the supportive study of other related facts and documents, reveals that the current constitution is better than the previous constitutions in acknowledging the language and education-related issues in post-conflict Afghanistan. The current constitution promotes and preserves linguistic plurality of Afghanistan. Keeping in view state's universal education mandate, it not only provides free education but also makes education mandatory for all of its citizens.


Metrics Loading ...


Bell, R. T. (2000). Psycholinguistics. National Book Foundation.

Bryman, A. (2016). Social Research Methods. Oxford University.

Central Intelligence Agency. (2009, 30 March). Afghanistan. CIA: The World Fact Book. USA: Central Intelligence Agency.

Curtis, G. E. (2008). Afghanistan: A Country Profile. Library of Congress- Federal Research Division. USA.

Edwards, D. B. (2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California.

Ekanayake, P. B. (2004). Education in Doldrums: Afghan Tragedy. Al-Azem.

Emadi, H. (2002). Ethnic Groups and National Unity in Afghanistan. Contemporary Review. Gale Group. USA.

Haravi, N. M. (1362 Hijria). Tareekh Wa Zuban Dar Afghanistan (History and Language in Afghanistan). Tehran, Iran.

HRW. (2017). I won’t be a doctor, and one day you’ll be sick: girls’ access to Education in Afghanistan. Human Rights Watch.

Irshad, M. (2002). Socio-Linguistic Aspects of English in Afghanistan. Thesis, University of Peshawar, Peshawar.

Khalilzad, Z. (1997). Anarchy in Afghanistan. (G. G. USA, Ed.) Journal of International Affairs, 51(1), 52-63.

Kirkwood, M. (1989). Language Planning in the Soviet Union. London: The Macmillan.

Majrooh, S. B. (1986). The Sovietization of Afghanistan. Peshawar: Afghan Jehad Works Translation Centre.

Maillart, E. (1940). Afghanistan's Rebirth: An Interview with H. R. H. Hashim Khan in 1937. Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, 27(2), 225-228.

Ministry of Higher Education Strategic Development Plan. (2005, March 30). Afghanistan Ministry of Higher Education;

Peimani, H. (2003). Falling Terrorism and Rising Conflicts: The Afghan "Contribution" to Polarization and Confrontation in West and South Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Rahman, T. (1998). Language and Politics in Pakistan. Oxford University.

Rashid, A. (2000). Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. Yale University.

Roberts, J. J. (2003). The Origins of Conflict in Afghanistan. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Rubin, A. (2016). Research methods for social work. Empowerment series. Cengage Learning.

Rubin, B. R. (2009, March 30). Afghanistan 2005 and Beyond: Prospects for Improved Stability Reference Document. Clingendael. Hague, The Netherland: Netherland Institute of International Relations.

Silverman, D. (2016). Qualitative Research. Sage.

Trumble, J. &. (1995). Afghanistan. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary. Oxford University.

Wardhaugh, R. (1998). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Blackwell.



How to Cite

Khan, A., Ahmad, A., & Gul, A. (2020). Constitution of Afghanistan: An Analysis of Educational and Linguistic Provisions. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 4(1), 66–75.