Managerial and Operational Hindrances to Polio Eradication: A Case Study of Tehsil Katlang, Mardan, Pakistan


  • Muhammad Zahid Department of Sociology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
  • Seema Zubair Department of Statistics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Arshad Khan Bangash Department of Sociology and Gender studies Bacha Khan university Charsadda



Polio Eradication, Managerial Factors, National Immunisation Days, WHO, EPI, Polio Vaccines, NIDs Campaign, GAVI, GPEI


The study aims to analyse managerial and operational hindrances to polio eradication process in Tehsil Katlang, District Mardan using quantitative research method i.e. questionnaire and statistical analysis. A sample size of 200 respondents i.e. polio workers of health department, staff of WHO and UNICEF are selected through proportionate stratified random technique. Bi-variate analyses are conducted with the help of Chi-square test. The study results concludes a significant association between polio eradication process and maintenance of cold chain, lack of transportation facility to polio staff, accessibility with reference to locality, training opportunities of polio workers, lack of trained public health professionals, workers dissatisfaction from salaries, timely payment of NIDs remuneration, unnecessary bureaucratic interventions and influences in Expended Program on Immunisation (EPI), lack of proper evaluation of National Immunisation Days (NIDs) campaign and security threats to polio workers. Further, a non-significant association is ascertained between polio eradication and timely availability of vaccines to EPI workers, effects of load shedding on maintenance of cold chain and proper monitoring of NIDs campaign. The findings state that the program needs proper management process for cold chain and transportation facilities. Salaries of the workers need to be increased and NIDs remuneration needs to pay on time. Various training programs should be initiated for workers and shortage of staff should be removed. Security arrangements for polio workers may be enhanced.


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How to Cite

Zahid, M. ., Zubair, S., & Bangash, A. K. . (2020). Managerial and Operational Hindrances to Polio Eradication: A Case Study of Tehsil Katlang, Mardan, Pakistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 3(2), 48–58.



Research Articles | Original Articles | Original Research