Facts behind the Traumatic Sexual Oppression in Maryce Conde’s I, Tituba Black Witch of Salem
Keywords:Sexual Objectification, Sexual Oppression, African Slaves, Black Women, Patriarchal Societies, Religious Devote
This paper analyses the effects of trauma on black female sexual agency and communal patriarchal norms controlling female eroticism to maintain male domination in Maryce Conde’s I, Tituba Black Witch of Salem. The research is qualitative and the nature of the research is explorative to investigate facts behind the traumatic sexual oppression in the selected novel of Conde. The researchers used close textual analysis as a research method exposing the historical factors behind the wretched plight of African women living in the United States who become the object of their white masters’ sexual desires. The paper also validates that the African women stand against this oppression and these women define themselves by fighting against the sexual assaults, and many of them are mentally tortured, physically hurt and some even lose their lives in the struggle against the will of their white Masters. The paper sets to prove that sexual exploitation of black women is due to the oppressive system designed by upper class white males that allows them to treat black women as their property.
Al-Badarneh, A. F., & Hamed, A. (2012). Female oppression and aspiration in selected nineteenth century novels by Elizabeth Gaskell, Charlottee Bronte, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Hays, D. G., Dean, J. K., & Chang, C. Y. (2007). Addressing privilege and oppression in counsellor training and practice: a qualitative analysis. Journal of Counselling & Development, 85(3), 317-324.
Chen-Hayes, S. F., & Smith, S. D. (2003). "Leadership and advocacy strategies for lesbian, bisexual, gay transgerdered, and questioning (LBGTQ) students: Academic, career, and interpersonal success strategies. In R. Perusse & G. E. Goodnough (Eds.), Leadership, advocacy, and direct sevice strategies." Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
Collins, P. H. (2002). Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Routledge.
Crethar, S. B., & Dermer, H. C. (2005). "Understanding the role of privilege in empowerment." Paper presented at the annual spring conference of the Illinois Association of Multicultural Counseling; the Illinois Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling; and Illinois Counselors for Social Justice, Chicago Heights.
Dor, D. (2005). The suppression of guilt. The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology. Pluto Press.
Feldman-Summers, C. D., & Ashworth, S. (1981). Factors related to intentions to report a rape. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 53-70.
Firestone, S., (2003). The dialect of sex: the case for feminist revolution. Farrar, Straus and Grioux.
Frey, L., et al. (1999). Investigating Communication: An Introduction to Research Methods. (2nd ed.). Allay and Bacon.
June-Rodgers, P., & Beth, A. (2009). "Bodily and narrative fragmentation: Wounds, scars, and feminist healing in selected novels by postmodern multiethinic American women." Indiana University of Pennsylvania, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Gonzales, A. M., & Rolison, G. (2005). Social oppression and attitudes toward sexual practices. Journal of Black Studies, 35(6), 715-729. https://doi.org.10.1177/0021934704263121
Adams, M. E., Bell, L. A. E., & Griffin, P. E. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Guindon, M. H., Talley, W. B., & Hanna, F. J. (2000) The power of perception: Toward a model of cultural oppression and liberation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, 430-441.
Pratto, F., Liu, J. H., Levin, S., Sidanius, J., Shih, M., Bachrach, H., & Hegarty, P. (2000). Social dominance orientation and the legitimization of inequality across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(3), 369-409.
Harff, T. R., & Gurr, B. (2004). Ethnic conflict in world politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Holzman, C. G. (1996). Counseling adult wome rape survivors: issues of race, ethnicity, and class. Women & Therapy, 19(2), 47-62.
Hunt, H.M. (2015). "Provoking pleasure: Erotic Dominance and Submission in the Early Amerian Novel." Purdue University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing .
Kolchin, P. (1993). Amerian Slavery 1619-1877. Hill and Wang, PI 17.
Levin, S., Sidanius, F., & Pratto, A. L.(2006). Social dominace theory and the dynamics of intergroup relations: Taking stock and looking forward. European Review of Social Psychology, 17(1), 271-320.
McNair, H. A., & Neville, L. D. (1996). African American women survivors of sexual assult: The intersection of race and class. Women & Therapy, 18, 107-118.
Neville, A. O., & Pugh, H. (1997). General and culture-specific factors influencing African American women's reportions and perceived social supprt following sexual assault: An exploratory investigation. Violence Against Women, 3, 361-381.
Foley, L. A., Evancic, C., Karnik, K., King, J., & Parks, A. (1995). Date rape: effects of race of assailant and victim and gender of subjects on perceptions. Journal of Black Psychology, 21(1), 6-18.
Pratoo, A. L., & Stewart, F. (2011). Social Dominance Theory. The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology. NP.
Roberts, D. (1997). Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. Pantheon Books.
Sealy, P., & Ashward, P. (2008). Racial oppression and the link to mental illness in Black and the substance abuse factor. University of Toronto (Canada), ProQuest Dissertations.
Sidanius, F., & Pratto, J. (1999). Social Dominance: An intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression. 10.1017. CBO9781139175043.
Varelas, L. A., Foley, N. (1998). Blacks' and Whites' perceptions of interracial and intraracial date rape. The Journal of Social Psyshology, 138(3), 392-400.
Washington, P. A. (2007). Disclosure patterns of Black female sexual assault survivors. Violence Against Women, 7(11), 1254-1283.
West, C. M. (2000). Developing an “oppositional gaze” toward the images of Black women. Lectures on the Psychology of Women, 220-233.
White, D. G. (1985). Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. W.W. Norton and Company.
Willis, C. E. (1992). The effect of sex role stereotype, victim and defendant race, and prior relationship on race culpability attribtions. Sex Roles, 26(5-6), 213-226.
Wyatt, G. E. (1992). The sociocultural context of Afrian American and White American women's rape. Journal of Sociola Issues, 48(1), 77-91.
Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton University Press.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Bilal, Wajid Riaz, Shaista Malik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Licensing & Copyright Policies
Articles in LASSIJ-IDEA are Open Access contents published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) http://
The copyright policy of LASSIJ-IDEA is based on a non-exclusive publishing agreement, according to which the journal retains the right of first publication, but author(s) are free to subsequently publish their work. The copyright of all work rests with the author(s).
The users may use, reproduce, disseminate or display the article(s) provided that the author(s) are attributed as the original creators and that the reuse is restricted to non-commercial purposes, i.e., research or other educational use. Authors are encouraged to familiarise themselves with the various creative commons licenses.