The Evolution of Jirga System: A Conflict Resolution Mechanism in FATA


  • Amna Mahmood Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad Pakistan.
  • Shaukat Ullah Department of History and Pakistan Studies, International Islamic University, Islamabad Pakistan | Gent Association for the Study of Parties and Representation (GASPR), University of Ghent, Belgium.
  • Shughla Ashfaq Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad Pakistan.



FATA, Conflict, Conflict Resolution, Conflict Management, Reconciliation, Jirga , Jirga System, Dispute Resolution


This study aims to evaluate the mechanism of conflict resolution through the Jirga system in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. Conflict is a common issue in every society, but the resolving bodies exist in every society which are working according to their socio-cultural set-up. The Jirga system is a conflict resolution body in semi-governed tribal areas of Pakistan in the absence of formal legal and justice system. This study highlights the evolution or historical background and concept of the Jirga system as well as the kinds of Jirga system. The study further evaluates the procedures of the Jirga system that how a Jirga proceeds and resolves a conflict between the two parties. The Jirga proceeds according to the nature of a conflict. A formal justice system on the pattern of settled districts are not in practice in FATA. Therefore, there is a strong urge that the institution of Jirga must be an effective substitute.


Metrics Loading ...


Atayee, M. I. (1979). A Dictionary of the Terminology of the Pashtun Tribal Customary Law and Usages, Kabul: The Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan.

Badakhshani, M. B. (2004). Feroz-ul-lughat, Dictionary of Persian and Urdu Jamia, Lahore: Feroz sons Publication.

Bangash, M. (2004). Jirga: Speedy Justice of Elders. Retrieved on 02-08-2016 from;

Chaudhry, G. M. (2011). Summary of 2011 amendments to the Frontier Crimes Regulation. Retrieved on 02-08-2016 from;

Faiz-zad, M. (1989). Jirga Haie Bozorge Milie Afghanistan. Lahore: Farhandi.

Gheyathoddin, Maulana, Ed., (1871). Ghyathul-Lughat. New Delhi: Kanpur Press.

Glatzer, B. (2002). The Pushtun Tribal System, Chapter-10. In G. Pfeffer & D. K. Behera (eds.): Concept of Tribal Society (Contemporary Society: Tribal Studies, Vol-5), New Delhi: Concept Publishers.

Glatzer, B. (1998). Is Afghanistan on the Brink of Ethnic and Tribal Disintegration? In Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban, edited by William Maley, New York: St. Martins.

Iqbal, K. (2004). Personal Interview by Shaukatullah.

Jahan, S. K. (2013). Personal Interview by Shaukatullah.

Khan, A. (2013). Personal Interview by Shaukatullah.

Miakhel, S. (2005). The Importance of Tribal Structures and Pakhtunwali in Afghanistan: Their Role in Security and Governance. Retrieved on 01-08-2016 from;

Roashan, G. R. (2001). Loya Jirga: One of the Last Political Tools for Bringing Peace in Afghanistan.

Shahzada, K. (2013). Personal Interview by Shaukatullah.

Sherzaman, T. (2007). Jirga system in Tribal Life. Published by University of Peshawar Area Study Centre (Russia, China, and Central Asia).

Sindh Judicial Academy, (2008). Study on Informal Justice in Pakistan. (An Evaluation Report).

Smith Institute UK (2007). Restorative Justice: The evidence, (Report). ISBN 1905370164.

The Frontier Crimes (Amendment) Regulations (FCR), 2011.

Wardak, A. (2004). Jirga: A Traditional Mechanism of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan. University of Glamorgan, UK.

Yousafzai, H. & Gohar A. (2012). Towards Understanding Pakhtun Jirga, Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel Publication.



How to Cite

Mahmood, A., Ullah, S., & Ashfaq, S. (2018). The Evolution of Jirga System: A Conflict Resolution Mechanism in FATA. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 2(1), 21–28.

Most read articles by the same author(s)