Analysing the voting cluster of political parties: A case study of Lahore district (1970-2013)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/5.1.27

Keywords:

socio-economic, voting cluster, trajectory, power politics, nomenclature, group cleavages, polity, party identification, dominant ideology

Abstract

A voting cluster is a connotation that denotes party loyalty rather than ethnic and social cleavages. The theory of voting cluster surfaces when the units of analysis are characterized by political parties and the voter instead of their nomenclatures. This makes this study significant and different given that it highlights the value of shifting the primary focus away from the nomenclature. With the nomenclature changing in every election, it is likely that political parties, their features, and trajectories are misconstrued. Thus, looking at the voting cluster of each political party and analysing of these clusters data, gathered from different surveys and reports, provide a deeper and accurate understanding of voting patterns.  This approach of voting cluster provides us an additional platform for analysis along with the conventional focus on nomenclatures of political parties. Focus of the study is to evaluate the changing pattern of voting clusters and their shift from one party to another. The qualitative content analysis research method has been used to understand the cluster pattern and why a voting cluster make or break from one party to other. The study maintains that there is no standalone factor that helps a political party to sustain a voting cluster.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Afzal, R. M. (1998). Political Parties in Pakistan 1947-58. Oxford University.

Afzal, R. M. (2002). Political Parties in Pakistan 1947-1971. Oxford University.

Ahmed, M. (2008). Voting behaviour in rural and urban areas of Punjab. Journal of Political Studies. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pols/Currentissue-pdf/voting%20behaviour.pdf

Alvares, M., Atkeson, L.R., & Hall, T., (2013). Evaluating election: A handbook of method and standards. Cambridge University.

Antunes, R. (2010). Theoretical models of voting behaviour. Comunicaçãoeciênciasem presariais, 145-170.

Allison, B. K. (2013). Ethnic Politics and Urban Voting Behaviour in India: Explaining Variation in Electoral Support for the Bharatiya Janata Party, 1999-2009. PHD Dissertation.

Burki, S. J., & Baxter, S. (1975). Socio-Economic Indicators of The Pakistan People’s Party Vote in Punjab: A study at the Tehsil Level. Journal of Asian Studies, 34(4), 913-930 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2054507

Congressional Research Service. (2008). Pakistan’s 2008 Elections: Results and Implications for U.S. Policy. https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20080409_RL34449_89106c17512c739a1328e2b80a70a4a0152d3ba0.pdf

Dunya News. (n.d.). Election 2018 results: Party positions and list of winning candidates. http://dunyanews.tv/en/Pakistan/449863-Election-2018-results-complete-winners-list-Pakistan-PTI-PMLN-PPP

Dunya News (n.d.). Election 2018: Lahore in numbers. https://dunyanews.tv/en/Pakistan/449874-Election-2018-Lahore-Results-In- Numbers

Election Commission of Pakistan. (2016). Report on the general elections 2013. https://www.ecp.gov.pk/Documents/General%20Elections%202013%20report/Election%20Report%202013%20Volume-I.pdf

Fakhr-ul-Islam, D. F. (2014). Operationalising the theory Of party identification in the electoral politics of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A case study of general elections 2013. Pakistan Annual Research Journal, 29-44.

Fisher, J., Fieldhouse, E., Franklin, M. N., Gibson, R., Cantijoch, M., & Wlezien, C. (Eds.). (2017). The Routledge handbook of elections, voting behaviour and public opinion. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315712390

Gallup Pakistan, University of Gujrat, & University of Management and Technology. (2018). Summer Symposium on 50-Year Long Electoral History (1970–2018). Pakistan Institute of Legislative and Development and Transparency.

Gallup Pakistan. (2018). Analytics of Elections in Pakistan.

Gardezi, H. N. (1994). Politics of religion in Pakistan's elections: An assessment. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 14 (1), 110-113. https://doi.org/10.1215/07323867-14-1-110 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/07323867-14-1-110

Gethin, A., Mehmood, S., & Piketty, P. (2020). Social Inequality and the Dynamics of Political and Ethnolinguistic Divides in Pakistan, 1970–2018. World Inequality Lab. https://wid.world/document/social-inequality-and-the-dynamics-of-political-and-ethnolinguistic-divides-in-pakistan-1970-2018-world-inequality-lab-wp-2020-16/

Hussain, S., Sajid, A. R., & Jullandhry, S. (2018). Politics-media-youth nexus: Analysis of Pakistan’s general elections 2013. Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1), 1446688. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1446688 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1446688

Mohmand, S.K. (2014). Losing the Connection: Party voter linkages in Pakistan. Commonwealth & Comparative politics, 52(1), 7-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14662043.2013.867687

National Assembly Elections in Pakistan 1970-2008 A compendium of elections related facts and statistics. (2010). Church World Service Pakistan/Afghanistan.

Paracha, N. F. (2017, Jan 26). Muslim league: A factional history. Dawn. https://www.dawn.com/news/1310662

Sheikh, J. A., Bokhari, S.S., Naseer, R. (2012). Voting Behaviour and Elections in Pakistan: A Case Study of Pakistani Election Methods and Methodology. The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences, 1(12): 449-456. https://www.theexplorerpak.org

Syed, A. (1991). The Pakistan People’s Party and the Punjab: National Assembly Elections, 1988 and 1990. Asian Survey, 31(7), 581-597. https://doi.org/10.2307/2645378 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2645378

Taylor, D. (1992). Parties, Elections and Democracy in Pakistan. Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative politics, 30(1), 96-115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14662049208447627

Vieira, K. A. L., & De Queiroz, G. M. (2017). Hermeneutic content analysis: A method of textual analysis. International Journal of Business Marketing and Management (IJBMM), 2(8), 8-15. http://www.ijbmm.com/paper/Sep2017/1743407743.pdf

Wilder, A. (1999). The Pakistani voter: Electoral politics and voting behaviour in the Punjab. Oxford University.

Wilder, A. R. (1995). Changing patterns of Punjab politics in Pakistan: National Assembly election results, 1988 and 1993. Asian Survey, 35(4), 377-393. https://doi.org/10.2307/2645802 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2645802

Published

2021-06-25

How to Cite

Munir, K. (2021). Analysing the voting cluster of political parties: A case study of Lahore district (1970-2013). Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 413–431. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/5.1.27

Issue

Section

Research Articles | Original Articles | Original Research

Categories