Socio-cultural factors of child domestic labour in the urban centre: A quantitative study in Peshawar Pakistan


  • Jahanzeb Khan National Commission on the Rights of Child, Islamabad, Government of Pakistan.
  • Rahman Ullah Department of Governance, Politics, & Public Policy, Abasyn University, Peshawar, Pakistan | BBC News (World Service), British Broadcasting Corporation, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Zafar Khan Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.



population increase, large family size, domestic child labour, social factors of child labour, economic factors of child labour


This research article investigates the socio-economic factors of child domestic labour. The quantitative methods utilize for the exploring the causal factors of child domestic labour. Data collected from 341 child domestic labour and their parents through snowball sampling techniques from the universe of the study. Uni-variate and Bi-variate statistics applied for the analysis of primary data. Poverty and over-population reinforce the child domestic labour in the urban centre of Pakistan. Large family size and unemployment compel parents to allow children in school age as a domestic worker. Gender discrimination and poverty also increase children's susceptibility to work as domestic labour. Pashtun, culturally more preferred children to keep them as a domestic labour and Pashtuns allow children to work inside home due to purdah (veil).  Domestic child labour also psycho-sextual and physical abuses and it is not reported in majority cases. Socio-economic protection of children and education significantly decrease the ratio of child domestic labour. It suggests to control over-population and provides socio-economic protection will decrease the ration of child domestic labour in the urban centre of Pakistan.


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How to Cite

Khan, J., Ullah, R., & Khan, Z. (2021). Socio-cultural factors of child domestic labour in the urban centre: A quantitative study in Peshawar Pakistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 525–536.