The influence of content and non-content cues of tourism information quality on the creation of destination image in social media: A study of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan




tourism, promoting tourism, destination image, destination marketing, information processing, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modelling


This research examines the Content Cues (CC) and Non-Content Cues (NCC) of tourism Information Quality (IQ) in social media (e.g., Instagram, Twitter, Facebook) and its influence on creating Destination Image (DES) components i.e., “cognitive image (COG), affective image (AF), conative image (CON)” in the scope of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. We distributed 500 questionnaires at various tourist destinations, and 446 complete questionnaires were returned and use for further analysis. We use the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to get the research outcomes. Our outcome suggests that CC and NCC of tourism IQ are significantly related to the COG and AF, which leads to the CON. Our finding also identified the relationship between CC and NCC with CON through the mediation role of COG and AF, which were positive and significant. This research extends the insight of tourism IQ in social media, precisely the contextual dimension of IQ, by providing empirical evidence. This research also helps the KP Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO’s) to develop their marketing strategies to encourage more visitors by utilizing Social Media (SM) platforms to their destinations.


Metrics Loading ...


Agapito, D., Oom do Valle, P., & da Costa Mendes, J. (2013). The cognitive-affective-conative model of destination image: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471–481.

Arazy, O., & Kopak, R. (2011). On the measurability of information quality. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(1), 89–99.

Baloglu, S., & Mccleary, K. (1999). A Model of Destination Image Formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868–897.

Basaran, U. (2016). Examining the Relationships of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Destination Image: A Research on Safranbolu, Turkey. International Business Research, 9(5), 164-179.

Bennett, R. J., Taljaard, D. S., Olaithe, M., Brennan-Jones, C., & Eikelboom, R. H. (2017). Evaluating random error in clinician-administered surveys: Theoretical considerations and clinical applications of interobserver reliability and agreement. American Journal of Audiology, 26(3), 191–201.

Berhanu, K., & Raj, S. (2020). The trustworthiness of travel and tourism information sources of social media: perspectives of international tourists visiting Ethiopia. Heliyon, 6(3), e03439.

Bosio, B., Haselwanter, S., & Ceipek, M. (2018). The Utilization of Social Media Marketing in Destination Management Organizations. In D. Tipuri? Darko Labaš (Ed.), 6th International OFEL Conference on Governance, Management and Entrepreneurship. New Business Models and Institutional Entrepreneurs: Leading Disruptive Change. April 13th - 14th, 2018, Dubrovnik, Croatia (pp. 249–268). Governance Research and Development Centre (CIRU).

Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in Information Technology and Tourism Management: 20 Years on and 10 Years After the Internet—The State of eTourism Research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609–623.

Chaiken, S. (1980). Heuristic Versus Systematic Information Processing and the Use of Source Versus Message Cues in Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(5), 752–766.

Chaulagain, S., Wiitala, J., & Fu, X. (2019). The impact of country image and destination image on US tourists’ travel intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12, 1–11.

Chen, S., & Chaiken, S. (1999). The heuristic-systematic model in its broader context.

Chi, C., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the Structural Relationships of Destination Image, Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty: An Integrated Approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624–636.

Heras-Pedrosa, C. D. L., Millan-Celis, E., Iglesias-Sánchez, P. P., & Jambrino-Maldonado, C. (2020). Importance of social media in the image formation of tourist destinations from the stakeholders’ perspective. Sustainability, 12(10), 4092.

Eftekhari, M. H., Barzegar, Z., & Isaai, M. T. (2010). Web 1.0 to web 3.0 evolution: reviewing the impacts on tourism development and opportunities. International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage, 184–193.

Emamjome, F. F., Rabaa’i, A. A., Gable, G. G., & Bandara, W. (2013). Information quality in social media: a conceptual model. Proceedings of the 17th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2013).

Fakeye, P., & Crompton, J. (1991). Image Differences Between Prospective, First-Time, and Repeat Visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 10–16.

Fatanti, M. N., & Suyadnya, I. W. (2015). Beyond user gaze: How Instagram creates tourism destination brand? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 1089–1095.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Fuchs, C., Hofkirchner, W., Schafranek, M., Raffl, C., Sandoval, M., & Bichler, R. (2010). Theoretical foundations of the web: cognition, communication, and co-operation. Towards an understanding of Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0. Future Internet, 2(1), 41–59.

Gartner, W. (1994). Image Formation Process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(2-3), 191–216.

Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M. C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications Association for Information System, 4, 2–77.

Ghazali, R. M., & Cai, L. (2014). Social media sites in destination image formation. In: Tourism Social Media: Transformations in Identity, Community and Culture, 18, 73-86.

Gnoth, J., Andreu, L., Kozak, M., Bigné, J. E., & Sánchez, I. (2009). The role of variety seeking in short and long run revisit intentions in holiday destinations. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3(2), 103-115.

Gretzel, U., Yuan, Y.-L., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2000). Preparing for the new economy: Advertising strategies and change in destination marketing organizations. Journal of Travel Research, 39(2), 146–156.

Hallmann, K., Zehrer, A., & Müller, S. (2015). Perceived destination image: An image model for a winter sports destination and its effect on intention to revisit. Journal of Travel Research, 54(1), 94–106.

Hasan, M. A. (2015). Promotional activities in the strategic tourism development of lapland.

Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications.

Hays, S., Page, S. J., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social media as a destination marketing tool: its use by national tourism organisations. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(3), 211–239.

Hernandez-Ortega, B., San Martin, H., Herrero, A., & Franco, J. L. (2020). What, how and when? Exploring the influence of firm-generated content on popularity in a tourism destination context. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 18, 100504.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Hudson, S., Roth, M., Madden, T., & Hudson, R. (2015). The effects of social media on emotions, brand relationship quality, and word of mouth: An empirical study of music festival attendees. Tourism Management, 47, 68–76.

Hughes, M., Martin, S., Morgan, R., & Robson, M. (2010). Realizing Product-Market Advantage in High-Technology International New Ventures: The Mediating Role of Ambidextrous Innovation. Journal of International Marketing, 18 (4), 1–21.

Hunt, J. D. (1975). Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 13(3), 1–7.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1982). Recent developments in structural equation modeling. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 404–416.

Kahn, B. K., Strong, D. M., & Wang, R. Y. (2002). Information quality benchmarks: product and service performance. Communications of the ACM, 45(4), 184–192.

Kanwel, S., Lingqiang, Z., Asif, M., Hwang, J., Hussain, A., & Jameel, A. (2019). The influence of destination image on tourist loyalty and intention to visit: Testing a multiple mediation approach. Sustainability, 11, 6401.

Kaplan, A., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite: The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68.

Kazak, L. (2016). The impact of social media on the tourism industry.

Kim, S.-E., Lee, K. Y., Shin, S., & Yang, S.-B. (2017). Effects of tourism information quality in social media on destination image formation: The case of Sina Weibo. Information & Management, 54(6), 687-702

Kim, S., & Yoon, Y. (2003). The hierarchical effects of affective and cognitive components on tourism destination image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 14(2), 1–22.

Lee, C.K., Lee, Y.-K., & Lee, B. (2005). Korea’s destination image formed by the 2002 world cup. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(4), 839–858.

Lee, Y. W., Strong, D. M., Kahn, B. K., & Wang, R. Y. (2002). AIMQ: a methodology for information quality assessment. Information & Management, 40(2), 133–146.

Leung, D., Law, R., Van Hoof, H., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social media in tourism and hospitality: A literature review. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(1-2), 3–22.

Li, J., Ali, F., & Kim, W. (2015). Reexamination of the role of destination image in tourism: An updated literature review. E-Review of Tourism Research, 12(3/4), 191–209.

Li, M., Cai, L., Lehto, X., & Huang, Z. (2010). A missing link in understanding revisit intention—The role of motivation and image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(4), 335–348.

Manzoor, F., Wei, L., Bányai, T., Nurunnabi, M., & Subhan, Q. (2019). An examination of sustainable HRM practices on job performance: An application of training as a moderator. Sustainability, 11(8), 2263.

Marine-Roig, E., & Clavé, S. (2016). A detailed method for destination image analysis using user-generated content. Information Technology & Tourism, 15(4), 341–364.

McNeish, D. (2018). Thanks coefficient alpha, we’ll take it from here. Psychological Methods, 23(3), 412-433.

Mini? N., N. A. T. C. J. (n.d.). The impact of Web 3.0 technologies on Tourism Information Systems.

Noti, E. (2013). Web 2.0 and the its influence in the tourism sector. European Scientific Journal, 9(20), 115-123.

Nunthiphatprueksa, A. (2017). The application of stimulus-organism-response paradigm: the role of social media in Thailand’s destination image and behavioral intentions.

Papadimitriou, D., Kaplanidou, K., & Apostolopoulou, A. (2018). Destination image components and word-of-mouth intentions in urban tourism: A multigroup approach. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(4), 503–527.

Pike, S. (2002). Destination image analysis: a review of 142 papers from 1973-2000. Tourism Management, 23, 541–549.

Pike, S., & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination Positioning Analysis through a Comparison of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42(4), 333-342

Rollero, C., & De Piccoli, N. (2010). Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(2), 198–205.

San Martín, H., & Del Bosque, I. A. R. (2008). Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29(2), 263–277.

Shen, N., Aggarwal, R., & Shaffer, S. (2007). Extensions to OSPF for Advertising Optional Router Capabilities.

Söderlund, M., & Rosengren, S. (2007). Receiving word-of-mouth from the service customer: An emotion-based effectiveness assessment. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14(2), 123–136.

Stepchenkova, S., & Mills, J. E. (2010). Destination image: A meta-analysis of 2000–2007 research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(6), 575–609.

Stepchenkova, S., & Morrison, A. M. (2008). Russia’s destination image among American pleasure travelers: Revisiting Echtner and Ritchie. Tourism Management, 29, 548–560.

Stylidis, D., Cherifi, B., & Melewar, T. C. (2021). Exploring Czechs’ and Greeks’ mental associations of London: a tourist destination or a place to live in? Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19, 100530.

Stylidis, D., Shani, A., & Belhassen, Y. (2017). Testing an integrated destination image model across residents and tourists. Tourism Management, 58, 184–195.

Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., & Vassiliadis, C. A. (2017). Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 60, 15–29.

Stylos, N., Vassiliadis, C. A., Bellou, V., & Andronikidis, A. (2016). Destination images, holistic images and personal normative beliefs: Predictors of intention to revisit a destination. Tourism Management, 53, 40–60.

Tasci, A., & Gartner, W. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413–425.

Tasci, A., Gartner, W., & Cavusgil, S. (2007). Conceptualization and operationalization of destination image. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(2), 194–223.

Tham, A., Croy, G., & Mair, J. (2013). Social media in destination choice: Distinctive electronic word-of-mouth dimensions. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(1–2), 144–155.

Usakli, A., Koç, B., & Sönmez, S. (2017). How “social” are destinations? Examining European DMO social media usage. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 6(2),136-149

Wang, C., & Hsu, M. (2010). The relationships of destination image, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: An integrated model. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(8), 829–843.

Wang, R., & Strong, D. (1996). Beyond accuracy: What data quality means to data consumers. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(4), 5–33.

Wirth, W., Böcking, T., Karnowski, V., & von Pape, T. (2007). Heuristic and systematic use of search engines. J. Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), 778–800.

Woosnam, K. M., Stylidis, D., & Ivkov, M. (2020). Explaining conative destination image through cognitive and affective destination image and emotional solidarity with residents. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(6), 917–935.

Yang, S.-B. (2015). The role of online product reviews on information adoption of new product development professionals. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 25.

Yüksel, A., & Akgül, O. (2007). Postcards as affective image makers: An idle agent in destination marketing. Tourism Management, 28(3), 714–725.

Zeng, B., & Gerritsen, R. (2014). What do we know about social media in tourism? A review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 10, 27–36.

Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., & Lu, L. (2014). Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 40, 213–223.

Zhang, K. Z. K., Zhao, S. J., Cheung, C. M. K., & Lee, M. K. O. (2014). Examining the influence of online reviews on consumers’ decision-making: A heuristic–systematic model. Decision Support Systems, 67, 78–89.



How to Cite

Ali, D., & Xiaoying, L. . (2021). The influence of content and non-content cues of tourism information quality on the creation of destination image in social media: A study of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 245–265.