A review of the bright side of dark triad and a road to career success

Authors

  • Faiza Tariq Department of Management Science, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8580-1410
  • Muhammad Amad Department of Political Sceince, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Li Lingjie Department of Health Management Florida, Orlando University, Orlando, United States of America (USA).

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/5.2.5

Keywords:

Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB), impression management, social capital, network benefits, dark triad, career success, narcissism, psychopathy, structural holes theory

Abstract

Viewing dark triad as a positive personality trait, the researchers intend to explore the constructive use of impression management with regard to career success based on structural holes theory, paying particular attention to social capital and network benefits as sequential mediators between impression management and career success. A systematic literature review was conducted comprising published research studies on the chosen variables of interest. The researchers made use of several websites and links, like Google Scholar, PsychINFO, ResearchGate, and Web of Science. The systematic research was conducted to identify the desired variables and review was summarized from 2000 to 2020. Considering the past literature, it was proposed that impression management improves social capital that further leads to network benefits, thus, contributing to career success, whereas the dark triad strengthens the relationship between impression management and social capital.  In last section, potential areas for future research in the context of impression management and dark triad are identified and a research agenda is put forward for the potential researchers. In future, researchers may benefit from the proposed conceptual model and can conduct a longitudinal quantitative research study considering the variables studied.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2002.5922314

Arthur, M. B., Khapova, S. N., & Wilderom, C. P. (2005). Career success in a boundaryless career world. Journal of Organizational Behaviour: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behaviour, 26(2), 177-202. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.290

Babiak, P., Hare, R. D., & McLaren, T. (2007). Snakes in suits: When psychopaths go to work. New Harper.

Ballout, H. I. (2009). Career commitment and career success: moderating role of self?efficacy. Career Development International. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430911005708

Barsness, Z. I., Diekmann, K. A., & Seidel, M. D. L. (2005). Motivation and opportunity: The role of remote work, demographic dissimilarity, and social network centrality in impression management. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 401-419. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2005.17407906

Baron, R. A., & Markman, G. D. (2000). Beyond social capital: How social skills can enhance entrepreneurs' success. Academy of Management Perspectives, 14(1), 106-116. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2000.2909843

Bereczkei, T., Birkas, B., & Kerekes, Z. (2010). The presence of others, prosocial traits, machiavellianism. Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000032

Bourdage, J. S., Lee, K., Lee, J. H., & Shin, K. H. (2012). Motives for organizational citizenship behavior: Personality correlates and coworker ratings of OCB. Human Performance, 25(3), 179-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2012.683904

Bourdage, J. S., Roulin, N., & Levashina, J. (2017). Impression management and faking in job interviews. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1294. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01294

Boey, L., & Vantilborgh, T. (2016). A theoretical model relating the dark triad of personality to the content of employees' psychological contracts. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 40(3), 44-66. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.070710570150466

Bolino, M., Long, D., & Turnley, W. (2016). Impression management in organizations: Critical questions, answers, and areas for future research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behaviour, 3, 377-406. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015-062337

Bolino, M. C., & Turnley, W. H. (1999). Measuring impression management in organizations: A scale development based on the Jones and Pittman taxonomy. Organizational Research Methods, 2(2), 187-206. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442819922005

Bolles, R. N. (1992). What color is your parachute? Ten Speed Press.

Blickle, G., Fröhlich, J. K., Ehlert, S., Pirner, K., Dietl, E., Hanes, T. J., & Ferris, G. R. (2011). Socioanalytic theory and work behaviour: Roles of work values and political skill in job performance and promotability assessment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 78(1), 136-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.05.010

Brud, P. P., Rogoza, R., & Cieciuch, J. (2020). Personality underpinnings of dark personalities: An example of Dark Triad and deadly sins. Personality and Individual Differences, 163, 110085. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110085

Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes. Harvard University. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674029095

Burt, R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative science quarterly, 339-365. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393923

Campbell, W. K., Reeder, G. D., Sedikides, C., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Narcissism and comparative self-enhancement strategies. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(3), 329-347. https://doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.2000.2282

Collewaert, V., Vanacker, T., Anseel, F., & Bourgois, D. (2021). The sandwich game: Founder CEOs and forecasting as impression management. Journal of Business Venturing, 36(1), 106075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2020.106075

Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. The Bellknap Press.

Dessler, G., Cole, N. D., & Chhinzer, N. (2015). Management of human resources: The essentials. Pearson.

Diekmann, C., Blickle, G., Hafner, K., & Peters, L. (2015). Trick or trait? The combined effects of employee impression management modesty and trait modesty on supervisor evaluations. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 89, 120-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.05.002

Dries, N., Pepermans, R., Hofmans, J., & Rypens, L. (2009). Development and validation of an objective intra?organizational career success measure for managers. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 30(4), 543-560. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.564

Edström, A., & Galbraith, J. R. (1977). Transfer of managers as a coordination and control strategy in multinational organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(2), 248-263. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391959

Ellis, A. P., West, B. J., Ryan, A. M., & DeShon, R. P. (2002). The use of impression management tactics in structured interviews: A function of question type? Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6), 1200. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.6.1200

Furnham, A., Richards, S. C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). The dark triad of personality: A 10-year review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(3), 199-216. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12018

Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183-211. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1992.4279530

Guo, S., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Li, L. M. W., & Gao, D. G. (2019). Impression management in predicting social stress and adaptive work behaviours. International Journal of Stress Management. https://doi.org/10.1037/str0000143

Gunnthorsdottir, A., McCabe, K., & Smith, V. (2002). Using the Machiavellianism instrument to predict trustworthiness in a bargaining game. Journal of Economic Psychology, 23(1), 49-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(01)00067-8

Hador, B. B. (2016). How intra-organizational social capital influences employee performance. Journal of Management Development, 35(9), 1119-1133. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-12-2015-0172

Halbesleben, J. R., Bowler, W. M., Bolino, M. C., & Turnley, W. H. (2010). Organizational concern, prosocial values, or impression management? How supervisors attribute motives to organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(6), 1450-1489. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00625.x

Hart, W., Richardson, K., & Tortoriello, G. K. (2018). Meet your public relations team: People with dark traits may help you manage your image. Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 164-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.019

Hagtvedt, L. P., Dossinger, K., Harrison, S. H., & Huang, L. (2019). Curiosity made the cat more creative: Specific curiosity as a driver of creativity. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 150, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2018.10.007

Heslin, P. A. (2003). Self-and other-referent criteria of career success. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(3), 262-286. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072703254500

Jones, E. E., & Pittman, T. S. (1982). Toward a general theory of strategic self-presentation. Psychological Perspectives on the Self, 1(1), 231-262. https://web.mit.edu/curhan/www/docs/Articles/15341_Readings/Rqd_rdngs_due_at_first_class/2Jones%20&%20Pittman%201982.pdf

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the short dark triad (SD3) a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21(1), 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113514105

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2011). The role of impulsivity in the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(5), 679-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.011

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Different provocations trigger aggression in narcissists and psychopaths. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(1), 12-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550609347591

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2009). Machiavellianism. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behaviour (pp. 93-108). The Guilford.

Jonason, P. K., & Sherman, R. A. (2020). Personality and the perception of situations: The Big Five and Dark triad traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 163, 110081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110081

Jonason, P. K., Slomski, S., & Partyka, J. (2012). The dark triad at work: How toxic employees get their way. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 449-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.008

Jones, D. N., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). The core of darkness: Uncovering the heart of the dark triad. European Journal of Personality, 27(6), 521-531. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1893

Kessler, S. R., Bandelli, A. C., Spector, P. E., Borman, W. C., Nelson, C. E., & Penney, L. M. (2010). Re?examining Machiavelli: A three?dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(8), 1868-1896. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00643.x

Kiazad, K., Kraimer, M. L., Seibert, S. E., & Sargent, L. (2020). Understanding organizational embeddedness and career success: Who and what you know. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 41(7), 678-693. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2464

Knoke, D., & Kuklinski, J. H. (1982). Network Analysis. (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences; Vol. 28). SAGE Publishing.

Kowalski, C. M., Rogoza, R., Vernon, P. A., & Schermer, J. A. (2018). The Dark triad and the self-presentation variables of socially desirable responding and self-monitoring. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 234-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.007

Konrath, S., Ho, M. H., & Zarins, S. (2016). The strategic helper: Narcissism and prosocial motives and behaviors. Current Psychology, 35(2), 182-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9417-3

Kram, K. E., & Isabella, L. A. (1985). Mentoring alternatives: The role of peer relationships in career development. Academy of Management Journal, 28(1), 110-132. https://doi.org/10.5465/256064

LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behaviour: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52-65.

Li, Y., Chen, H., Liu, Y., & Peng, M. W. (2014). Managerial ties, organizational learning, and opportunity capture: A social capital perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 31(1), 271-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-012-9330-8

Maccoby, M. (2000). Narcissistic Leaders. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 69. https://hbr.org/2004/01/narcissistic-leaders-the-incredible-pros-the-inevitable-cons

McAllister, C. P., Ellen III, B. P., & Ferris, G. R. (2018). Social influence opportunity recognition, evaluation, and capitalization: Increased theoretical specification through political skill’s dimensional dynamics. Journal of Management, 44(5), 1926-1952. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316633747

Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Otgaar, H., & Meijer, E. (2017). The malevolent side of human nature: A meta-analysis and critical review of the literature on the dark triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(2), 183-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691616666070

Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-266. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.533225

O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D., Banks, G. C., & Story, P. A. (2013). A meta-analytic review of the Dark Triad–intelligence connection. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(6), 789-794.

O'Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., Story, P. A., & White, C. D. (2015). A meta?analytic test of redundancy and relative importance of the dark triad and five?factor model of personality. Journal of Personality, 83(6), 644-664. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12126

Ouerdian, E. G. B., & Mansour, N. (2019). The relationship of social capital with objective career success: the case of Tunisian bankers. Journal of Management Development https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-09-2018-0257

Paal, T., & Bereczkei, T. (2007). Adult theory of mind, cooperation, Machiavellianism: The effect of mindreading on social relations. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(3), 541-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.12.021

Paunonen, S. V., Lönnqvist, J. E., Verkasalo, M., Leikas, S., & Nissinen, V. (2006). Narcissism and emergent leadership in military cadets. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(5), 475-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.06.003

Pontari, B. A., & Schlenker, B. R. (2006). Helping friends manage impressions: We like helpful liars but respect non-helpful truth tellers. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 28(2), 177-183. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp2802_7

Raja, U., Bouckenooghe, D., Syed, F., & Naseer, S. (2018). Interplay between PO fit, transformational leadership and organizational social capital. Personnel Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-07-2016-0161

Rosenfeld, P., Giacalone, R. A., & Riordan, C. A. (1995). Impression management in organizations. Routledge.

Savard, C., Simard, C., & Jonason, P. K. (2017). Psychometric properties of the French-Canadian version of the dark triad dirty dozen. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 122-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.044

Seibert, S. E., Crant, J. M., & Kraimer, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(3), 416. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.3.416

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., Holtom, B. C., & Pierotti, A. J. (2013). Even the best laid plans sometimes go askew: Career self-management processes, career shocks, and the decision to pursue graduate education. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 169. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030882

Shockley, K. M., Ureksoy, H., Rodopman, O. B., Poteat, L. F., & Dullaghan, T. R. (2016). Development of a new scale to measure subjective career success: A mixed?methods study. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 37(1), 128-153. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2046

Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression management (Vol. 222). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Schyns, B. (2015). D ark Personality in the Workplace: Introduction to the Special Issue. Applied Psychology, 64(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12041

Smale, A., Bagdadli, S., Cotton, R., Dello Russo, S., Dickmann, M., Dysvik, A., & Unite, J. (2019). Proactive career behaviors and subjective career success: The moderating role of national culture. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 40(1), 105-122. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2316

Smith, M. B., & Webster, B. D. (2017). A moderated mediation model of Machiavellianism, social undermining, political skill, and supervisor-rated job performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 453-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.010

Spain, S. M., Harms, P., & LeBreton, J. M. (2014). The dark side of personality at work. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 35(S1), S41-S60. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1894

Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Kraimer, M. L. (2001). Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 316-325. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069458

Spreitzer, G. M. (1996). Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2), 483-504. https://doi.org/10.5465/256789l

Spurk, D., Hirschi, A., & Dries, N. (2019). Antecedents and outcomes of objective versus subjective career success: Competing perspectives and future directions. Journal of Management, 45(1), 35-69. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206318786563

Suseno, Y., & Rowley, C. (2016). Call for papers Asia Pacific Business review special issue: Social capital application & outcomes: Service firms in the Asia Pacific Region. https://www.anzam.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/CfP-Special-Issue-APBR.pdf

Sullivan, S. E., & Baruch, Y. (2009). Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1542-1571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309350082

Tedeschi, J. T. (Ed.). (2013). Impression management theory and social psychological research. Academic Press.

Thompson, R. F. (1967). Foundations of physiological psychology. Harper and Row

Uppal, N. (2021). How Machiavellianism engenders impression management motives: The role of social astuteness and networking ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 168, 110314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110314

Wang, S., Guidice, R., Zhou, Y., & Wang, Z. M. (2017). It’s more complicated than we think: The implications of social capital on innovation. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 34(3), 649-674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-016-9491-y

Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C., Kraimer, M. L., and Graf, I. K. (1999). The role of human capital, motivation and supervisor sponsorship in predicting career success. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 20(5), 577-595. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199909)20:5<577::AID-JOB958>3.0.CO;2-0

Wayne, S. J., & Liden, R. C. (1995). Effects of impression management on performance ratings: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 232-260. https://doi.org/10.5465/256734

Wilson, D. S., Near, D., & Miller, R. R. (1996). Machiavellianism: a synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 285-299. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.285

Wulani, F., Handoko, T. H., & Purwanto, B. M. (2021). Supervisor-directed OCB and deviant behaviors: the role of LMX and impression management motives. Personnel Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-06-2020-0406

Zettler, I., & Solga, M. (2013). Not enough of a ‘dark’ trait? Linking Machiavellianism to job performance. European Journal of Personality, 27(6), 545-554. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1912

Published

2021-09-16

How to Cite

Tariq, F., Amad, M., & Lingjie, L. (2021). A review of the bright side of dark triad and a road to career success. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(2), 61–78. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/5.2.5