Hydro-Hegemony Framework: A study of the India Pakistan trans-boundary water competition and cooperation


  • Munawar Hussain Area Study Center for South and North America, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6550-7772
  • Munazza Khalid Area Study Center for South and North America, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan | Department of Aerospace Sciences and Strategic Studies, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7292-9108
  • Sumeera Imran Department of International Relations, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.




hydro-hegemony framework, hydro-relations, hydro-hegemonic designs, transboundary water, Indus Water Treaty, water competition, water control, water conflict, water cooperation


After the independence of Pakistan and India in 1947, both the newly established states submerged in many tensions leading to competition in many areas. One such area is the hydro competition between the two closely bordering states. Within this context, India and Pakistan kicked by perianal security dilemma at all levels. India is diverting water from western rivers, which is not permissible for India in Indus Water Treaty (IWT). The Purpose of this study is to find out the reason/s that why India is behaving in this way? This is an applied research within the context of Hydro-Hegemony Framework (HHF) theory. According to the theory, India is behaving hydro-hegemonically because of the three reasons stated by Hydro-Hegemony Framework; firstly, because of Indian advantageous upper-riparian geographical position; secondly, because of Indian superior technical potential and ability to construct a lot of dams; thirdly power asymmetry exists between India and Pakistan. India because of these three main reasons is desirous to get “Consolidated Water Control” over three western rivers assigned to Pakistan by Indus Water Treaty. Indian endeavours to get water dominance would complicate its relations with Pakistan. Indian hydro-hegemony would impact Pakistan’s economy, hydro-power generations projects, agriculture sectors and domestic hydro-usage


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How to Cite

Hussain, M., Khalid, M., & Imran, S. (2021). Hydro-Hegemony Framework: A study of the India Pakistan trans-boundary water competition and cooperation. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 537–553. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/5.1.35