Access to justice: An evaluation of the informal justice systems


  • Jawad Ahmad Institute for Economic Law, University of Kassel, Kassel, Hessen, Germany.
  • Georg Von Wangenheim Institute for Economic Law, University of Kassel, Kassel, Hessen, Germany.



informal justice system, panchayats, jirga, customs, culture, conflict management, arbitration, reconciliation, peace, dispute resolution


The judicial system of any state can be divided as formal and informal, where the formal is under the state (official) and informal may or may not be under the domain of the state (informal justice system). Since both systems provide access to justice, however, the informal system is viewed as a threat to formal justice system. In this context we need to better understand the role played by informal justices system. We have focused on three fundamental issues, first to evaluate the role of the alternate and informal justice system to improve access to justice. Second, we listed weaknesses in informal justice systems that gives us an insight into our third goal of suggesting a framework for engaging informal justice system and improved on its shortcomings which can be helpful in supporting or reducing the burden on the formal system. Because of the absence of relevant literature, we resorted to empirical reports and case studies on other developing countries’ to present our arguments. We showed that informal system is playing a positive role in the society and there is a need to reform the system especially for its negative traits, e.g., human rights.


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How to Cite

Ahmad, J., & Wangenheim, G. V. (2021). Access to justice: An evaluation of the informal justice systems. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 228–244.