Impact of teachers’ social capital on their professional performance: A narrative inquiry


  • Muhammad Rafiq Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
  • Abdul Ghaffar Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
  • Amir Zaman Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.



Social Capital, Dimensions of Social Capital, Social Capital in Education, Social Capital in School, Teachers’ Social Capital, Teachers’ Professional Performance


The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of social capital on teachers’ professional performance. The participants were ten male subject specialists from government higher secondary schools of District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The method of data collection was one-on-one in person through in-depth interview. Teachers’ narratives showed that teachers who had stronger social capital performed better their others. Performance of the teachers who showed high level of participation and willingness were those with high social capital. They were more interested in curricular and co-curricular activities that enhanced their professional performance. There is a strong bond of good relationship between teachers and students that was an efficient solution to meet the different needs of a classroom collectively as well as individual students, which impacts positively on students’ learning and teachers’ performance. There was no contribution from parents for success of the students. Owing to financial constraints, the parents were more inclined to engage their children for earning and part time job. Moreover, lack of awareness, jobless white collars in their surroundings, labouring and earning livelihood far away from home are the reasons that they take negligible interest in contributing to the success of their children.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeyemi, T. (2010). The supply of science teachers to secondary schools in Ondo state, Nigeria: a critical analysis. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 7(1).

Acar, E. (2011). Effects of social capital on academic success: a narrative synthesis. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(6), 456-461.

Adams, R. (2008). Review of Riessman (2008): Narrative methods for the human sciences. Narrative Inquiry, 18(2), 415-418.

Aldrich, D. P., & Meyer, M. A. (2014). Social capital and community resilience. American Behavioural Scientist, 59(2), 254-269.

Akram, T., Lei, S., Hussain, S. T., Haider, M. J., & Akram, M. W. (2016). Does relational leadership generate organizational social capital? a case of exploring the effect of relational leadership on organizational social capital in China. Future Business Journal, 2(2), 116-126.

Andrews, R. (2010). Organizational social capital, structure and performance. Human Relations, 63(5), 583-608.

Aslandogan, Y. A., & Cetin, M. (2007). The philosophy of Gulen in thought and practice.

Bartoli, A., & Blatrix, C. (2015). Management dans les organisations publiques, Dunod. Management international, 13(4), 135.

Bolton, D. J. (2011). Social capital in rural southwest Kansas. Kansas State University. 3(5).

Bos-Nehles, A. C., Van Riemsdijk, M. J., & Kees Looise, J. (2013). Employee perceptions of line management performance: applying the AMO theory to explain the effectiveness of line managers' HRM implementation. Human Resource Management, 52(6), 861-877.

Campbell, C. (2020). Social capital, social movements and global public health: Fighting for health-enabling contexts in marginalised settings. Social Science & Medicine, 257, 112153.

Cao, Q., Lu, Y., Dong, D., Tang, Z., & Li, Y. (2013). The roles of bridging and bonding in social media communities. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(8), 1671-1681.

Carey, S., Lawson, B., & Krause, D. R. (2010). Social capital configuration, legal bonds and performance in buyer–supplier relationships. Journal of Operations Management, 29(4), 277-288.

Cetin, M. (2007). The Gulen Movement: its nature and identity. Paper presented at the conference, Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gulen Movement. University of London.

Coburn, C. E., & Russell, J. L. (2008). District policy and teachers’ social networks. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(3), 203-235.

Claridge, T. (2018, January 20). Structural, cognitive, and relational social capital. Social Capital Research.

Chai, N. (2009). Sustainability balanced scorecard of SPES. Sustainability Performance Evaluation System in Government, 81-117.

Chisholm, J. S., Quinlivan, J. A., Petersen, R. W., & Coall, D. A. (2005). Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Human Nature, 16(3), 233-265.

Clandinin, D. J. (2006). Narrative inquiry: A methodology for studying lived experience. Research Studies in Music Education, 27(1), 44-54.

Creswell, J. D. (2017). Mindfulness interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 68(1), 491-516.

Daly, A. J., Liou, Y., & Der-Martirosian, C. (2020). A capital idea: Exploring the relationship between human and social capital and student achievement in schools. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 6(1), 7-28.

Daykin, N., Mansfield, L., Meads, C., Gray, K., Golding, A., Tomlinson, A., & Victor, C. (2020). The role of social capital in participatory arts for wellbeing: Findings from a qualitative systematic review. Arts & Health, 1-24.

Deal, T. E., Purinton, T., & Waetjen, D. C. (2008). Making sense of social networks in schools. Corwin Press.

Dika, S. L., & Singh, K. (2002). Applications of social capital in educational literature: A critical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 72(1), 31-60.

Dufur, M. J., Parcel, T. L., & Troutman, K. P. (2013). Does capital at home matter more than capital at school? Social capital effects on academic achievement. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 31, 1-21.

Grootaert, C., Narayan, D., Jones, V. N., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Measuring social capital: An integrated questionnaire. World Bank Working Papers.

Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional capital: transforming teaching in every school. Teachers College Press.

Hunt, R. A., & Aslandogan, Y. A. (2007). Muslim Citizens of the globalized world. contributions of the Gülen Movement. Tughra Books.

Inkpen, A. C., & Tsang, E. W. (2005). Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 146-165.

Johnson, W., Lustick, D., & Kim, M. (2011). Teacher professional learning as the growth of social capital. Current Issues in Education, 14(3).

Kuncoro, T., & Dardiri, A. (2017). Teacher performance and work environment in the instructional process in vocational school.

Moolenaar, N. M., & Sleegers, P. J. (2015). The networked principal: Examining principals’ social relationships and transformational leadership in school and district networks. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(1), 8-39.

Parcel, T. L., Dufur, M. J., & Cornell Zito, R. (2010). undefined. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(4), 828-846.

Penuel, W., Fishman, B. J., Gallagher, L. P., Korbak, C., & Lopez-Prado, B. (2009). Is alignment enough? Investigating the effects of state policies and professional development on science curriculum implementation. Science Education, 93(4), 656-677.

Pil, F. K., & Leana, C. (2009). Applying organizational research to public school reform: The effects of teacher human and social capital on student performance. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6), 1101-1124.

Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work - CSCW '00.

Rao, D. (2003). Job satisfaction of school teachers. Discovery.

Riaz, M. N. (2000). Student evaluation of university teaching quality: Analysis of a teacher's rating scale for a sample of university students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 107-117.

Riessman, C. K. (2007). Narrative methods for the human sciences. Sage.

Shahidul, S. M., Karim, A. H., & Mustari, S. (2015). Social capital and educational aspiration of students: Does family social capital affect more compared to school social capital? International Education Studies, 8(12), 255.

Shiell, A., Hawe, P., & Kavanagh, S. (2020). Evidence suggests a need to rethink social capital and social capital interventions. Social Science & Medicine, 257, 111930.

Sil, S. (2007). Parent-School Partnerships: Forked Roads to College Access. School Community Journal, 17(1), 113-128.

Waithaka, E. N. (2014). Family capital: Conceptual model to unpack the intergenerational transfer of advantage in transitions to adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(3), 471-484.

Webster, L. (2007). Using narrative inquiry as a research method.

Yoon, S., & Lee, E. (2019). Social and psychological determinants of value Co-creation behavior for South Korean firms. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 31(1), 14-36.



How to Cite

Rafiq, M., Ghaffar, A., & Zaman, A. (2021). Impact of teachers’ social capital on their professional performance: A narrative inquiry. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 1–15.



Research Articles | Original Articles | Original Research