Macroeconomic Policies and Social Inclusion in the Developing World
Keywords:Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy, Social Inclusion, Panel data
Many in the developing world face social exclusion and discrimination, preventing them from actively participating in society itself. Sound macroeconomic policies with a focus on stabilizing the price level and social outcomes can help to achieve social justice for marginalized people. This study empirically examines the impact of macroeconomic policies on social inclusion, considering specifically the coordination among them in promoting that social inclusion. It deals primarily with pure non-income dimensions of social inclusion such as education, and health, etc. Using annual panel data of 51 developing countries for the period 1995-2017 this study employs state-of-the-art panel data estimation methods – pooled estimation, fixed-effect, and random-effect models. To check for robustness and to handle the problem of endogeneity, the 2SLS technique has also been used. This study argues that a well-designed macroeconomic policy framework can do much more than just achieve economic goals. Results suggest that fiscal and monetary policy, through resource mobilization, can play a significant and positive role in promoting social inclusion. However, these fiscal and monetary policy actions are not independent; thus, a policy mix is required to achieve the target of an inclusive society.
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Copyright (c) 2020 Zakia Batool, Arshad Bhatti
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