Effect of English Non-Modal Operators on Proficiency and Performance of Undergraduate Students in Hazara University, Pakistan





Non-modal Operators, Students Problems, Interplay, Negation, Inversion, Grammatical Operation, Tense, Aspect, Verb Phrase


This study focuses on the problems posed by the English non-modal operators to the undergraduate level students of Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. The data was collected from hundred students selected through non-random and convenience sampling technique. A proficiency test was used as a tool for data collection. The test was focused on all the uses of non-modal operators. The results show that some of these problems were caused by the intervention of some of grammatical concepts like tense, aspect, back shifting and voice. While some grammatical operations like negation, interrogation and insertion/omission had no role and so were found comparatively easy. These operators when used after wh-word such as when, while, before and if posed difficulty for the subjects. Similarly, different forms such as non-tensed form and uses such as dynamic and non-dynamic of non-modal operators were also problematic for the subjects. The highest frequency of error was found in the use of non-model operator for emphasis and surprise. However, the degree of difficulty posed by non-modal operators in idiomatic expressions was not significant.


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How to Cite

Khalid, Rahman, G. ., & Hamid, A. (2020). Effect of English Non-Modal Operators on Proficiency and Performance of Undergraduate Students in Hazara University, Pakistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 4(1), 271–281. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/4.1.23



Research Articles | Original Articles | Original Research