Effect of English Non-Modal Operators on Proficiency and Performance of Undergraduate Students in Hazara University, Pakistan

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/4.1.23

Keywords:

Non-modal Operators, Students Problems, Interplay, Negation, Inversion, Grammatical Operation, Tense, Aspect, Verb Phrase

Abstract

This study focuses on the problems posed by the English non-modal operators to the undergraduate level students of Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. The data was collected from hundred students selected through non-random and convenience sampling technique. A proficiency test was used as a tool for data collection. The test was focused on all the uses of non-modal operators. The results show that some of these problems were caused by the intervention of some of grammatical concepts like tense, aspect, back shifting and voice. While some grammatical operations like negation, interrogation and insertion/omission had no role and so were found comparatively easy. These operators when used after wh-word such as when, while, before and if posed difficulty for the subjects. Similarly, different forms such as non-tensed form and uses such as dynamic and non-dynamic of non-modal operators were also problematic for the subjects. The highest frequency of error was found in the use of non-model operator for emphasis and surprise. However, the degree of difficulty posed by non-modal operators in idiomatic expressions was not significant.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Agustin, M. (2018). An error analysis of auxiliary verbs found on students’ consecutive interpretation. A Study of the Students of English Teaching Department of IAIN Batusangkar State Islamic University. http://repo.iainbatusangkar.ac.id/xmlui/handle/123456789/10559

Anwar, B., Butt, B., & Khan, R. M. I. (2019). Modal auxiliaries in Pakistani English Newspapers: Social and pedagogical perspectives. Pakistan Social Sciences Review, 3(2), 164-177. https://pssr.org.pk/issues/v3/2/modal-auxiliaries-in-pakistani-english-newspapers-social-and-pedagogical-perspectives.pdf

Ayoola, K. A. (2006). University English for all students. Oliveiree.

Bamgbose, A. (1990). English lexis and structure for senior secondary schools and colleges. Heinemann.

Boadi, L. A., Grieve, D. W., & Nwankwo, B. (1968). Grammatical structure and its teaching. African Universities.

Çak?r, ?. (2011). Problems in teaching tenses to Turkish learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(2), 123-127. http://www.academypublication.com/issues/past/tpls/vol01/02/tpls0102.pdf#page=3

Cancino, H., Rosansky, E. J., & Schumann, J. H. (1975). The acquisition of the English auxiliary by native Spanish speakers. TESOL quarterly, 9(4), 421-430. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3585626

Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English: A comprehensive guide: spoken and written English grammar and usage. Cambridge University.

Cekiso, M., Tshotsho, B., & Masha, R. (2015). English language proficiency as a predictor of academic achievement among primary English first additional language learners in South Africa. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 9(3), 325-333. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2015.11890322

Corder, S. P. (1981). Error analysis and interlanguage. Oxford University.

Cook, V. (1989). Universal grammar theory and the classroom. System, 17(2), 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(89)90031-6

Damanik, M. (2010). A brief description of English primary auxiliary verbs (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Sumatera.

Gleason, H. A. (1965). Linguistics and English grammar. Holt-Rinehart and Winston Inc.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Edward Arnold.

Haq, A. S. (2020). Investigating the use of modal auxiliary verbs in tempo editorial. International Journal of English Linguistics, Literature, and Education, 2(1), 49-56. http://journal.univetbantara.ac.id/index.php/ijelle/article/view/671

Hassan, A. (2015). A syntactic analysis of the use of auxiliary verbs in office documents: A case study of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai . Unpublished master’s thesis, Ahmadu Bello University.

Huddleston, R. (1984). Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge University Press.

Jacob, O. A. (2014). The use of auxiliary verbs by Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) students: A case study of Federal College of Education (FCE), Kano. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ahmadu Bello University.

Johnson, C. (1985). The emergence of present perfect verb forms: semantic influences on selective imitation. Journal of Child Language, 12(2), 325–52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900006462

Kertz, L. (2010). Ellipsis reconsidered. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California.

Manokaran, J., Ramalingam, C., & Adriana, K. (2013). A corpus-based study on the use of past tense auxiliary "Be" in argumentative essays of Malaysian ESL learners. English Language Teaching, 6(10), 111-119. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1077151

Michener, J. (1986). Macmillan English. Macmillan.

Miller, P., and Pullum. G. K. (2013). Exophoric VP ellipsis. In P. Hofmeister, and E. Norcliffe, (Eds.), The core and the periphery: Data-driven perspectives on syntax inspired by Ivan A. Sag, (pp. 5-32). CSLI.

Muir, J. (1972). A modern approach to English grammar: an introduction to systemic grammar. Batsford.

Nguyen, T. P. H. (2010). An investigation into some common errors in using auxiliary verbs made by first-year students at the Faculty of Information Technology-Thai Nguyen University. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Languages & International Studies. https://repository.vnu.edu.vn/handle/VNU_123/40902

Nolasco, R. (1990). Mastering English as a Foreign Language. Macmillan Education Limited.

Oji, N. (1988). ‘Common errors’ in English grammar for advanced students. Pacific.

Onuigbo, S. (2005). English language: A grammatical description. Afra-Orbis.

Palmer, F. (1965). A linguistic study of the English verb. Longman.

Pettersson, H. (2019). Subject-verb agreement in ESL texts: A corpus-based study of Swedish ESL students' written production. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Mid Sweden University. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1353948/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Quirk, R. & Greenbaum, A. (1973). A university grammar of English. Longman.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Longman.

Ratmanida, R., Syafei, A. F. R., & Wahyuni, A. (2019, February). Grammatical Difficulties in Using Simple Present Tense in Presenting Spoken Exposition Text by The Second Year of MAN 2 Padang Students. In Proceedings of the Sixth of International Conference on English Language and Teaching (pp. 167-171). Atlantis.

Rice, M. L., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. L. (1995). Specific language impairment as a period of extended optional infinitive. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 38(4), 850-863. https://pubs.asha.org/doi/full/10.1044/jshr.3804.850

Robison, R. E. (1995). The aspect hypothesis revisited: A cross-sectional study of tense and aspect marking in interlanguage. Applied linguistics, 16(3), 344-370. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.3.344

Singh, R. (2018). Auxiliary verbs in Serbo-Croatian, French, Persian, Spanish and English: A cognitive-semantic approach to the auxiliary verb usage and passive voice. English Linguistics Research, 7(3), 34-41.

Sledd, J. (1959). A short introduction to English grammar. Scott Foresman.

Stageberg, N. C. (1981). An Introduction to grammar. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Tajiri, T., Komachi, M., & Matsumoto, Y. (2012, July). Tense and aspect error correction for ESL learners using global context. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (pp. 198-202). Association for computational linguistics.

Tejedor, G. P. (2020). The development of perfect auxiliary verbs be and have in early Australian English (1788-1937): A corpus study. Interlinguistic Studies, 8, 193-208. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=7663961

Theakston, A. L., Lieven, E. V., Pine, J. M., & Rowland, C. F. (2001). The role of performance limitations in the acquisition of verb-argument structure: An alternative account. Journal of Child Language, 28(1), 127-152. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900004608

Theakston, A. L., Lieven, E. V., & Tomasello, M. (2003). The role of the input in the acquisition of third person singular verbs in English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46(4), 863-877. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2003/067)

Theakston, A. L., Lieven, E. V., Pine, J. M., & Rowland, C. F. (2005). The acquisition of auxiliary syntax: Be and Have. Cognitive Linguistics, 16(1), 247-277. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/cogl.2005.16.1.247/html

Thomson, A. J., Martinet, A. V., & Draycott, E. (1986). A practical English grammar. Oxford University.

Ur, P. (1996). Grammar Teaching: Theory, Practice and English Teacher Education. In J. Hunter, B. Mehlmauer, S. Reichl, and B. Schiftner (Eds.), Theory and practice in EFL teacher education: Bridging the gap (pp. 83-100). Multilingual Matters.

Wexler, K. (1994). 14 optional infinitives, head movement and the economy of derivations. In D. Lightfoot, & N. Hornstein (Eds.), Verb movement (pp. 305-350). Cambridge University.

White, L. (1992). Universal grammar: Is it just a new name for old problems? In S. M. Gass, and L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 217-230). John Benjamins.

Young, D. J. (1980). The structure of English clauses. Hutchinson.

Published

2020-12-10

How to Cite

Khalid, Rahman, G. ., & Hamid, A. (2020). Effect of English Non-Modal Operators on Proficiency and Performance of Undergraduate Students in Hazara University, Pakistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 4(1), 271–281. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/4.1.23

Issue

Section

Research Articles | Original Articles | Original Research

Categories