Challenges to globalization and its impact on prevailing international liberal order


  • Muhammad Adeel Khan Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Manzoor Ahmad Naazer Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Amna Mahmood Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.



Globalization, unipolarity, multipolarity, liberal order, anti globalization waves, anti-globalization, WTO, international trade, European Union, Brexit, isolationism, protectionism, nationalism, world order


Challenges to globalization have grave implications for the worldwide liberal order that emerged with the end of the cold war. These challenges began to ascend from the West. The occasions like Brexit, ascent of radical rightist political groups in Europe, recognition of isolationist policies, choice of former US President Donald Trump (Originator of isolationist policies), and the strive towards confinement of manufacture and services have altered the contours of global liberal order. The objective of this examination is to find the factors that prepared ground for anti-globalization accounts as well as to discover its effect on the global liberal order by applying the content analysis method. This study will assume qualitative methodology utilizing both primary and secondary data i.e., government documents, annual reports, speeches of leaders, books, journal articles and newspapers etc. The findings of the study concludes that anti-globalization narratives are translating into the electoral processes, progressing hyper-nationalism over liberal order; multi-polarity above Uni-polarity; and Isolationism above free market economy. All such changes have critical repercussions for the global liberal order, hence, should be observed cautiously. If the pattern proceeds, the world pioneers ought to think about modifying the worldwide associations, alliances, as well as national security procedures.


Metrics Loading ...


Amadi, L. (2020). Globalization and the changing liberal international order: A review of the literature. Research in Globalization, 2, 100015.

Al-Rodhan, N. (2017). Post-truth politics, the fifth estate and the securitization of fake news. Global Policy, 1-8.

Bivens, J. (2017). Adding insult to injury. Economic Policy Institute.

Buzan, B., & Lawson, G. (2015). The global transformation: history, modernity and the making of international relations (Vol. 135). Cambridge University.

Buzan, B., & Lawson, G. (2014). Capitalism and the emergent world order. International Affairs, 90(1), 71-91.

Blecker, R. A., Moreno-Brid, J. C., & Salat, I. (2017). Trumping the NAFTA renegotiation: An alternative policy framework for Mexican-US cooperation and economic convergence. Real-World Economics Review, 94, 1-36.

Chase-Dunn, C., & Gills, B. (2005). Understanding waves of globalization and resistance in the capitalist world system: social movements and critical global studies. Critical Globalization Studies, 45, 54-60.

Checkel, J. T. (2017). Methods in Constructivist Approaches to International Security (SWP 55), 1-24.

Detraz, N. (2009). Environmental security and gender: Necessary shifts in an evolving debate. Security Studies, 18(2), 345-369.

Encyclopedia. (n.d). The anti-globalization movement.

Fuchs, C. (2015, December 10). Antiglobalization: Social movement. Encyclopædia Britannica.

Fischer, R., Edward Halibozek, M. B. A., & Walters, D. (2012). Introduction to security. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Guibernau, M. (2010). Migration and rise of the radical right. Policy Network Paper, 1, 1-19.

Hammes, T. X. (2016, July). Will technological convergence reverse globalization? Strategic Forum, 297.

Hannah-Fuchs, S. A. (2017). A brief history of the anti-globalization movement. Berlin: Deutsche Welle.

Husain, S. R. (2018). US-China trade spat weighs down the global crude economy. Daily Dawn.

Hopgood, S. (2013). Human rights empire. In: The endtimes of human rights (pp. 119-141). Cornell University.

Ikenberry, G. J. (2018). The end of liberal international order? International Affairs, 94(1), 7-23.

Jorg-Flecker, G. H. (2016). Changing working life and the appeal of the extreme right. Routledge.

Jackson, R., Sørensen, G., & Møller, J. (2019). Introduction to international relations: Theories and approaches. Oxford University.

Klaus, S. (2016). The fourth industrial revolution. In World Economic Forum (p. 11).

Khan, S. (2016). Transition from unipolar to a multipolar world: Implications for Pakistan’s foreign policy. ISSRA Papers, 8(I), 1-16.

McGrew, A. G. (1992). Conceptualizing global politics. John Wiley.

Mozur, P. (2021, April 20). A global tipping point for reining in tech has arrived. The New York Times.

Paul, B., & Stares, Q. J. (2020). Perspectives on a changing world order. Council on Foreign Relations.

Pashakhanlou, A. H. (2014). Waltz, Mearsheimer and the post-Cold War world: The rise of America and the fall of structural realism. International Politics, 51(3), 295-315.

Rewizorski, M. (2021). Backlash against globalisation and the shadow of Phobos. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Science, 14(1), 123-141.

Ritzer, G., & Dean, P. (2015). Globalization: A basic text. John Wiley.

Roubini, N. (2010). A Global Breakdown of the recession in 2009.

Kimball, W. Scott, R., E. (2014). China trade, outsourcing and jobs: Growing US trade deficit with China cost. Economic Policy Institute.

Sorensen, R. H. (2010). Introduction to international relations: Theories and approaches (4th Edition). Oxford University.

Steger, M. B. (2017). Globalization: A very short introduction (Vol. 86). Oxford University.

Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and its discontents (Vol. 500). Norton.

Global Trends. (2017). Global trends: Paradox of progress. National Intelligence Council.

Walter, S. (2021). The backlash against globalization. Annual Review of Political Science, 33, 1-36.

Zumbrun, J. (2016). Forces that opened up borders show signs of sputtering. Wall Street Journal.



How to Cite

Khan, M. A., Naazer, M. A., & Mahmood, A. (2021). Challenges to globalization and its impact on prevailing international liberal order. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 5(1), 372–385.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>