Social implications of the Islamisation of General Zia-ul-Haq for Pakistan


  • Muhammad Arshid Department of Pakistan Studies, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan | Department of Higher Education, Archives, and Libraries, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Ejaz Department of Pakistan Studies, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan | Department of Higher Education, Archives, and Libraries, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Waleed Ahmed Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies; University of Gottingen, Germany.



political Islam, context of Islamisation, politics of Islamisation, extremism, sectarianism, radicalism, militancy, terrorism, human rights, polity, education


This study aims to understand the context, patterns, and social implications of Islamisation Zia-ul-Haq in Pakistan. After seizing power, Zia started a manic process of Islamisation. One segment of Pakistani society believes that it has positive impacts, while others believe that it has negative consequences for society. This study investigates this disconcerted debate, and its nature is descriptive and explanatory because it tries to examine the queries of what and why. It is based on the literature review of secondary sources and an analysis of primary data. The thematic analysis model is used for the analysis of data. It was found that the patterns of Zia’s policy regarding state-religion relations were opposite to the vision of the founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The global, strategic, and socio-political contexts of Islamisation were the impulse behind that process. The consequences of this process are of concern, as it brought about extremism, sectarianism, and terrorism and negatively affected the human rights regime, polity, and education system. It is suggested that the state should stop patronising extremists’ narratives, adopt peaceful, mystical interpretations, separate matters of religion from state politics, and promote progressive interpretations and arrangements for a better future for the country.


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How to Cite

Arshid, M., Ejaz, M., & Ahmed, W. (2023). Social implications of the Islamisation of General Zia-ul-Haq for Pakistan. Journal of Humanities, Social and Management Sciences (JHSMS), 4(1), 78–76.