A historical overview of reforms in the erstwhile Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan

Authors

  • Bakhtiar Khan Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Buner, Sowari, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1331-8347
  • Sajad Ali Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Buner, Sowari, Pakistan.
  • Arif Khan Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Buner, Sowari, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4265-2659

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.jhsms/4.1.2

Keywords:

FCR, Frontier Crimes Regulations, FATA reforms, constitutional reforms, merger of FATA, erstwhile FATA, tribal areas of Pakistan, merged districts

Abstract

The erstwhile Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), recently merged with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), are one of the less developed areas of Pakistan. The erstwhile FATA included seven agencies and six frontier regions. Under the Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR), popularly known as a black law, the legal and administrative structure of these tribal areas was formulated by the British colonial power. These regulations were the cornerstone of FATA's administration after 1947. These areas remained semi-governed under the executive and did not fall under the sphere of influence of the national and provincial legislatures. Due to the region's internal and external dynamics, Pakistan's governments failed to introduce reforms or merge the FATA with their adjoining districts or the province. The regulations empowered the political administration to adjudicate civil and criminal cases through Jirgas and take measures for peace and security. The head of the state constitutionally governed these areas through the governor of KP. The study focuses on the historical evolution of the reforms in erstwhile FATA. The findings show that after the May 2018 merger of erstwhile FATA, it is essential to change the system to integrate these merged districts into the country's mainstream politics and governance structure.

References

Butt, N. (2017). Irregularities detected in FATA development projects. Business Recorder. http://www.brecorder.com/business-a-economy/189/1227604/

Chaudhary, G. M. (2011). Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) 1901, as amended in 2011. https://vdocuments.site/frontier-crimes-regulation-fcr-1901-as-amended-in-2011-english-including-summary-of-reforms.html?page=6

Ghafoor, M. T. (2009). Impediments involved in the integration of federally administrated tribal areas (FATA) in the national mainstream of Pakistan (Doctoral dissertation, Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College). https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?repid=rep1&type=pdf&doi=cb2dd0ea63f847810b76fd5482e38e2466df1a16

Government of Pakistan. (2006), FATA Development Plan (2006-2015) Peshawar: Planning and Development Department, Civil Secretariat, FATA. https://www.giz.de/en/worldwide/18029.html

SAFRON. (2016). Report of the Committee on FATA Reforms 2016. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, Government of Pakistan. https://safron.gov.pk/SiteImage/Downloads/Report%20of%20%20Committee%20on%20FATA%20Reforms%202016.pdf

Hussain, M. H. (2012). Frontier Crimes Regulation: a case study of reforms process. TIGAH: A Journal of Peace and Development, 2(1), 96.

Hussain, I., Rahman, Z. U., Shah, M. N. U. H., & Xingong, W. (2022). State-tribal relations in the British India: a study of the Yousafzai’s armed resistance in the Northwest Frontier region. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 6(2), 103–121. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/6.2.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/6.2.6

IPRI. (2008). FATA: A Profile of Socio-Economic Development. Islamabad Policy Research Institute, 15. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41259576

Khan, R. R. (2012). FATA political regime: changing legal-administrative status of tribal areas. TIGAH: A Journal of Peace and Development, 1(1), 115-134. http://frc.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/FATA-Political-Regime-Changing-Legal-Administrative-Status-of-Tribal-Areas.pdf

Khan, S. (2008). Special Status of FATA: illegal becoming Licit” in Central Asia, 63. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2764795

Khan, S. (2010). Special status of tribal areas (FATA): an artificial imperial construct bleeding Asia. Eurasia Border Review, 1(1), 63-74. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2766193

Khan, I. U., Khan, A., & Ullah, A. (2022). Causes and factors responsible for Operation Zarb-e-Azb: perspective of internally displaced persons of North Waziristan, Pakistan. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 6(1), 181–200. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/6.1.12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/6.1.12

Rakisits, C. (2008, April). Pakistan’s Tribal Areas: a critical no-man’s land. In Webster University Forum, Geneva. http://www.geopolitical-assessments.com/Pakistan_s_Tribal_Areas.pdf

Shinwari, N. A. (2010). Understanding FATA: Attitudes Towards Governance, Religion and Society in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Islamabad: Community Appraisal and Motivation Program 5. https://doi.org/10.11588/xarep.00002715

Sulaiman, S., & Bukhari, S. A. A. S. (2016). Governance Reforms in FATA: A People's Perspective. Islamabad: FATA Research Centre. https://frc.org.pk/breaking/governance-reforms-in-fata-a-peoples-perspective/

Taj, F. (2011). New FATA reforms good but insufficient in Daily Time. https://dailytimes.com.pk/111076/new-fata-reforms-good-but-insufficient/

Ullah, A., & Hayat, S. U. (2018). The merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: an historical analysis. Journal of Political Studies, 25(2), 39-53. http://www.nihcr.edu.pk/Downloads/Dr%20Altaf%20sb/26.%20The%20Merger%20of%20FATA.pdf

Ullah, A. & Hayat, S. U. (2017). The recent electoral reforms in FATA: an appraisal. Journal of Political Studies, 24(2), 22-34. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pols/pdf-files/4_24_2_17.pdf

Ullah, A. & Khan, S. (2017). Qabaeli Alaqajaat (FATA) mein Islahati Kawish 2016: Tarikh ke Tanazur mein” in Mujallah Tarikh wa Saqafat-i-Pakistan. 224-234. http://www.nihcr.edu.pk/Downloads/Dr%20Altaf%20sb/21.%20Qabaeli%20Alaqajaat%20(FATA)%20ki%20Haiseeyyat%20-%20Mumkina%20Hal%20par%20aik%20Tanqeedi%20Jaeza.pdf

Ullah, H., Aman, S., & Zubair, M. (2022). Securitising the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderland: impacts on the Ahmadzai Wazirs. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ), 6(1), 145–162. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/6.1.10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/6.1.10

Wazir, M. M. K. (2007). FATA under FCR (Frontier Crimes Regulations): an imperial black law. Central Asia. http://www.asc-centralasia.edu.pk/Issue_61/09-FATA_UNDER_FCR.html

Published

2023-03-07

How to Cite

Khan, B., Ali, S., & Khan, A. (2023). A historical overview of reforms in the erstwhile Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. Journal of Humanities, Social and Management Sciences (JHSMS), 4(1), 15–27. https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.jhsms/4.1.2

Issue

Section

Research Articles