Blended learning teacher competencies: exploring the integration of adaptive and technical skills among college teachers in Pakistan




Blended learning, Teacher competency, Adaptive skills, Technical skills, Social constructivism, Learning platform, Digital learning platform, Traditional classroom


Blended learning is a teaching-learning strategy that combines ICT and other digital learning platforms with traditional classroom settings. Blended learning teacher competencies are required for 21st-century teaching. This study aimed to explore the integration of adaptive and technical skills among college teachers in Pakistan. The International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) has listed these skills in the Blended Learning Teacher Competency Framework. Social constructivism and connectivism served as the theoretical framework for this study, demonstrating how learning facilitated by digital networks connects specialised information sets to empower students to take an active role in their education. A descriptive survey research design was employed to gather information from 206 college-level teachers who were chosen randomly. Domains of adaptive and technical skills from the blended teaching competencies framework were used as an adapted questionnaire with 26 statements on a 5-point Likert scale. The results indicate a low number of teachers are using adaptive and technical skills in a blended learning classroom. It is recommended that specialised training by experts in the field be conducted for college teachers to boost personalised teaching skills and technical know-how for adopting blended learning as the 21st-century teaching strategy.


Ando, K., Basilisco, J., Deniega, A., Gador, K., Geraldo, P. J., Gipulao, W. E. M., ... & Minyamin, A. (2022). Learning without learning in the New Normal: College Education Students lived experiences in blended learning modality. Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2(6), 455-464.

Antonio, R. P. (2022). Effectiveness of blended instructional approach in improving students' scientific learning outcomes: a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 22(5). DOI:

Aurangzeb, W. (2018). Blended learning classroom environment at university level: a panoramic view of students' perceptions. NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry, 16(1), 96-113.

Barnett, R., & Jackson, N. (Eds.). (2019). Ecologies for learning and practice: emerging ideas, sightings, and possibilities. Routledge. DOI:

Barron, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: a learning ecology perspective. Human Development, 49(4), 193-224. DOI:

Bayne, S., Evans, P., Ewins, R., Knox, J., & Lamb, J. (2020). The manifesto for teaching online. MIT Press. DOI:

Boholano, H. B. (2017). Smart social networking: 21st century teaching and learning skills. Research in Pedagogy, 7(1), 21-29. DOI:

Bowles, M., & Kaviani, A. (2023). Perceptions of teacher competencies in a new higher education blended learning program: an exploratory study. Studies in Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(2). DOI:

Choden, U., & Sherab, K. (2019). Personal and professional needs related to technological, pedagogical, and subject content knowledge (TPACK) of Royal University of Bhutan faculty. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Education in the Digital Ecosystem (ICEdDE 2019). DOI:

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education, 6. Bask?, Oxon: Routledge. DOI:

Cronhjort, M., Filipsson, L., & Weurlander, M. (2018). Improved engagement and learning in flipped-classroom calculus. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications: An International Journal of the IMA, 37(3), 113-121. DOI:

Elbyaly, M. Y. H., & Elfeky, A. I. M. (2022). The role of metacognition in promoting deep learning in MOOCs during COVID-19 pandemic. PeerJ Computer Science, 8, e945. DOI:

Fan, Y., Jovanovic, J., Saint, J., Jiang, Y., Wang, Q., & Gaševic, D. (2022). Revealing the regulation of learning strategies of MOOC retakers: a learning analytic study. Computers and Education, 178, 104404. DOI:

Gil-Quintana, J., & Osuna-Acedo, S. (2020). Citizenship training through sMOOCs: a participative and intercreative learning. Sustainability, 12(20), 8301. DOI:

Guida, M., & Cinganotto, L. (2021). Visible teacher thinking and group learning. In Ludic, Co-design and Tools Supporting Smart Learning Ecosystems and Smart Education: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Smart Learning Ecosystems and Regional Development (pp. 117-129). Springer. DOI:

Heo, H., Bonk, C. J., & Doo, M. Y. (2022). Influences of depression, self-efficacy, and resource management on learning engagement in blended learning during COVID-19. The Internet and higher education, 54, 100856. DOI:

Jabbarova, A. (2020). Formation of professional competencies in the course of preparing and conducting business games in English classes. Journal of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, 1(1), 38-42.

Murawski, M., & Bick, M. (2017). Digital competencies of the workforce–a research topic? Business Process Management Journal, 23(3), 721-734. DOI:

Peklaj, C. (2015). Teacher competencies through the prism of educational research. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 5(3), 183-204. DOI:

Powell, A., Rabbitt, B., & Kennedy, K. (2014). iNACOL blended learning teacher competency framework. International Association for K-12 Online Learning. Teacher-Competency-Framework.pdf

Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., & Abdullah, N. A. (2020). Challenges in the online component of blended learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 144, 103701. DOI:

Saeheng, P. (2017). A study of e-learning, blended learning, and traditional teaching methods to motivate autonomous learning in English reading comprehension of Thais learners. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 1-20. DOI:

?ahan, H. H. (2020). The relationship of prospective teachers' educational philosophy and life-long learning tendencies to their teaching-learning process competencies. DOI:

Smith, M. J. (2021). A blended learning case study: geo exploration, adaptive learning, and visual knowledge acquisition. In Blended Learning (pp. 178-189). Routledge. DOI:

Wani. A. (2020). Impact of the lockdown due to COVID-19 on education: a review. International Journal Multidisciplinary Research Development, 7(12), 41–44.

Wei, Y., Shi, Y., MacLeod, J., & Yang, H. H. (2022). Exploring the factors that influence college students’ academic self-efficacy in blended learning: a study from the personal, interpersonal, and environmental perspectives. SAGE Open, 12(2), 21582440221104815. DOI:

Widjaja, G., & Aslan, A. (2022). Blended learning method in the view of learning and teaching strategy in geography study programs in higher education. Nazhruna: Journal Pendidikan Islam, 5(1), 22-36. DOI:



How to Cite

Meer, J., Aurangzeb, W., & Mir, H. (2024). Blended learning teacher competencies: exploring the integration of adaptive and technical skills among college teachers in Pakistan. Journal of Humanities, Social and Management Sciences (JHSMS), 5(1), 94–108.



Research Articles